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Ayahuasca: alkaloids, plants & analogs
assembled by Keeper of the Trout
Section 3 : Part 2 :
Phalaris arundinacea
A look at some selected reports

It should be noted that material marked D+M or M may contain either 5-MeO-MMT or 5-MeO-DMT or both. No breakdown was attempted. In the case of Marten et al. 1974 (ref. 5b) all values were generated as mean averages and harvests were not at optimum times.

Abbreviations and definitions

Table headings are also located at the end of the table.


Phalaris aquatica

Clone # or name Date/ Place of harvestAge/ Type of growthAlkaloid(s)%
as dry wt.
% of total alk.total alk.
(dry wt.)
Ref
Phalaris arundinacea       
        
4-8 Regrowth; meanD+M  0.24-0.415b
        
5-1 Regrowth; meanD+M  0.02-0.105b
        
6-6
See as
Phalaris arundinacea
P.I. 209979 Siberia
       
        
11-4 Regrowth; meanD+M  0.06-0.195b
        
14-2
See as
Phalaris arundinacea
P.I. 234697 Denmark
       
        
19-71
See as
Phalaris arundinacea
P.I. 235547 Sweden
       
        
28-4 Regrowth; meanD  0.10-0.145b
        
32-4 Regrowth; meanD+M  ?5b
        
32-10 Regrowth; meanD+M  0.34-0.625b
        
41-1 Regrowth; meanD+M  0.35-0.425b
        
108-31 7June 1971
Minnesota
First growth7
(54 days)
M  0.22%5a
        
108-37 June 1971
Pennsylvania
First growth7
(49days)
M  0.16%5a
        
108-323 Aug, 1971
Alaska
First growth7
(77 days)
M  0.50%5a
        
108-311 July 1971
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(34 days)
M  0.61%5a
        
108-317 July 1970
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(34 days)
D+M  0.92%5a
        
108-321 July 1970
Indiana
First regrowth7
(42 days)
D+M  1.19%5a
        
108-330 Aug. 1970
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(46 days)
D+M  1.05%5a
        
108-32 Sept. 1970
Indiana
First regrowth7
(43 days)
M  0.91% 5a
        
108-323 Aug, 1971
Pennsylvania
First regrowth7
(77 days)
M  0.59%5a
        
108-315 Nov, 1969
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(58 days)
GR D+M  0.67%5a
        
108-326 Aug, 1971
Minnesota
Second regrowth7
(46 days)
M  0.84%5a
        
255-101 7 June 1971
Minnesota
First growth7
(54 days)
M  0.17%5a
        
255-107 June 1971
Pennsylvania
First growth7
(49 days)
M  0.20%5a
        
255-1023 Aug, 1971
Alaska
First growth7
(77 days)
M  0.47% 5a
        
255-1017 July 1970
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(34 days)
D+M  0.90%5a
        
255-1027 June
Indiana
First regrowthHordenine
Gramine
MMT
DMT
Unknown 1
5-MeO-MMT
5-MeO-DMT
Unknown 2
Unknown 3
65
trace
0.3
0.1
trace
863
absent
 0.91% 11
        
255-1011 July 1971
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(34 days)
M  0.69%5a
        
255-1021 July 1970
Indiana
First regrowth7
(42 days)
D+M  0.95%5a
        
255-1023 Aug, 1971
Pennsylvania
First regrowth7
(77 days)
M  0.56%5a
        
255-1030 Aug. 1970
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(46 days)
D+M  0.89% 5a
        
255-102 Sept. 1970
Indiana
First regrowth7
(43 days)
M  0.70%5a
        
255-1015 Nov, 1969
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(58 days)
GR
D+M  0.53%5a
        
255-1026 Aug, 1971
Minnesota
Second regrowth7
(46 days)
M  0.80% 5a
        
263-8117 July 1970
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(34 days)
D+M  0.27%5a
        
263-821 July 1970
Indiana
First regrowth7
(42 days)
D+M  0.33%5a
        
263-830 Aug. 1970
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(46 days)
D+M  0.28%5a
        
263-82 Sept. 1970
Indiana
First regrowth7
(43 days)
D+M  0.25%5a
        
263-815 Nov, 1969
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(58 days)
GR
D+M  0.12%5a
        
329-8117 July 1970
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(34 days)
D+M   0.33%5a
        
329-821 July 1970
Indiana
First regrowth7
(42 days)
D+M  0.39%5a
        
329-830 Aug. 1970
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(46 days)
D+M  0.36%5a
        
329-82 Sept. 1970
Indiana
First regrowth7
(43 days)
M  0.29%5a
        
369-321
[AKA R16]
 3-4 week old regrowthDMT
2-Me-THβC
"Large"
trace
  4
        
405-921
[AKA R5]
 3-4 week old regrowth DMT
2-Me-THβC
"Large"
trace
  4
         
405-927 June
Indiana
First regrowthHordenine
Gramine
MMT
DMT
Unknown 1
5-MeO-M
5-MeO-D
Unknown 2
Unknown 3
 10
4
trace
0.3
0.3
trace
81
3
2
0.65%11
        
405-917 July 1970
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(34 days)
D+M  0.56%5a
        
405-921 July 1970
Indiana
First regrowth7
(42 days)
D+M   0.64%5a
405-930 Aug. 1970
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(46 days)
D+M  0.67%5a
        
405-92 Sept. 1970
Indiana
First regrowth7
(43 days)
 0.54%5a
        
405-915 Nov, 1969
Minnesota
First regrowth 7
(58 days) GR
D+M  0.67%5a
        
429-317 June 1971
Minnesota
First growth7
(54 days)
M  0.09%5a
        
429-37 June 1971
Pennsylvania
First growth7(49 days)M  0.09% 5a
        
429-323 Aug, 1971
Alaska
First growth7
(77 days)
M  0.45%5a
        
429-317 July 1970
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(34 days)
D+M  0.75%5a
        
429-321 July 1970
Indiana
First regrowth7
(42 days)
D+M  0.84%5a
        
429-323 Aug, 1971
Pennsylvania
First regrowth7
(77 days)
M  0.41%5a
        
429-330 Aug. 1970
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(46 days
D+M  0.80%5a
        
429-32 Sept. 1970
Indiana
First regrowth7
(43 days)
M  0.74%5a
        
429-311 July 1971
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(34 days)
M  0.55%5a
        
429-315 Nov, 1969
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(58 days) GR
D+M  0.57%5a
        
429-326 Aug, 1971
Minnesota
Second regrowth7
(46 days)
M  0.62%5a
        
604917 July 1970
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(34 days)
  D+M0.32%5a
        
6049 21 July 1970
Indiana
First regrowth7
(42 days)
D+M   0.31%5a
        
604930 Aug. 1970
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(46 days)
D+M  0.33%5a
        
60492 Sept. 1970
Indiana
First regrowth7
(43 days)
D+M  0.24%5a
        
604915 Nov, 1969
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(58 days) GR
D+M  0.22%5a
        
633219626First growth
Seed shattering
5-MeO-DMT
DMT
trace
trace
  2
        
63327 June 1971
Minnesota
First growth7
(54 days)
M  0.05%5a
        
63327 June 1971
Pennsylvania
First growth7
(49 days)
M  0.03%5a
        
633223 Aug, 1971
Alaska
First growth7
(77 days)
M  0.14%5a
        
633219626Firstregrowth
Latejointing
5-MeO-DMT
DMT
0.038(±0.003)
0.006(±0.001)
  2
        
633219636First regrowth
Late jointing
5-MeO-DMT
DMT
0.067 (± 0.002)
0.015 (± 0.001)
  2
        
633211 July 1971
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(34 days)
M  0.22%5a
        
633217 July 1970
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(34 days)
D+M  0.22%5a
        
633221 July 1970
Indiana
First regrowth7
(42 days)
D+M  0.42%5a
        
633223 Aug, 1971
Pennsylvania
First regrowth7
(77 days)
M  0.13%5a
        
633230 Aug. 1970
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(46 days)
D+M  0.28%5a
        
63322 Sept. 1970
Indiana
First regrowth7
(43 days)
D+M  0.29%5a
        
633215 Nov. 1969
Minnesota
First regrowth7
(58 days) GR
D+M  0.17%5a
        
6332Nov, 1969Not given.
GR (regrowth?)
5-MeO-DMT
DMT
0.15
0.02
 0.17% [Total alkaloid identified]2
        
6332Jan, 1970Not given.
GR (regrowth?)
nana
na
 0.17% [Total base present]2
        
633219636ate jointing.
Second regrowth
5-MeO-DMT
DMT
0.046 (± 0.004)
0.008 (± 0.001)
  2
        
633226 Aug, 1971
Minnesota
Second regrowth7
(46 days)
M  0.20%5a
        
604919626First growth
Seed shattering
5-MeO-DMT
DMT
trace
none
  2
        
604919626First regrowth
Late jointing
5-MeO-DMT
DMT
0.036 (± 0.003)
0.010 (± 0.000)
  2
        
604919636 First regrowth
Late jointing
5-MeO-DMT
DMT
0.056 (± 0.002)
0.013 (± 0.001)
  2
        
604919636Second regrowth
Late jointing
5-MeO-DMT
DMT
0.032 (± 0.001)
0.011 (± 0.001)
  2
        
6049November 1969Not given
Greenhouse
5-MeO-DMT
DMT
0.20
0.02
 0.22% [Total alkaloid ident.]2
        
6049January 1970Not given
Greenhouse
5-MeO-DMT
DMT
na
na
 0.24% [Total base present]2
        
P.I. 172443 TurkeyUS 5-MeO-DMT is the major  0.025-0.045%1
        
P.I. 209979 SiberiaUS D+M"Low levels" 0.12-0.165b
        
P.I. 234697 DenmarkUS D+M"High levels" 0.40-0.585b
        
P.I. 235547 Sweden10
[AKA 19-7]
US 5-MeO-DMT is the major  0.025-0.045%1
        
19-7 Regrowth; meanD+M"High levels" 0.31-0.445b
        
P.I. 253317 Yugoslavia10US 5-MeO-DMT is the major  0.025-0.045%1
        
R5 See as Phalaris arundinacea USDA clone #405-9       
        
R16 See as Phalaris arundinacea USDA clone #369-3       
        
R513 3-4 week old regrowth5-MeO-DMT"Large"100 4
        
R963 3-4 week old regrowth 5-MeO-DMT
Hordenine
6-MeO-2,9-diMe-THβC
"Large"
trace
trace
  4
        
R5043 3-4 week old regrowthDMT5Hordenine"Large""Intermediate"  4
        
Clone # or name Date/ Place of harvestAge/ Type of growthAlkaloid(s)%
as dry wt.
% of total alk.total alk.
(dry wt.)
Ref



Legend(for numbers in superscript)
    1: Numbers with this format are USDA clone numbers. [Many are readily available through the USDA. Check their GRIN website.]

    2: Originated from U.S. Regional Pasture Research Laboratory, University Park, Pennsylvania.

    3: Origin listed as "highly diverse source population used in plant breeding and genetic studies at the University of Minnesota, Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics."

    4: Grown in a controlled environment of 21o C days/16o C nights with an 8 hour day length.

    5: DMT was found in only 75% of the individuals arising from this clone.

    6: Material stored in plastic bags, frozen at -12°C, until analyzed in 1969.

    7: Harvested when 20-60 cm tall and still in vegetative stage.

    8: 100 seedlings weighed 10-20 grams.

    9: Unidentified trace alkaloids turned out to be 5-Methoxygramine, 5,7-Dimethoxygramine and 7-Methoxygramine. All were in the whole plant but highest in the roots. Mulvena & Slaytor 1983

    10: Simons & Marten 1971 obtained the clones P.I. 235547 Sweden [USDA clone 19-7] and P.I. 253317 Yugoslavia from either the Western Regional Plant Introduction Station, Pullman Washington or the Northeastern Station, Geneva, NY.


References used for Phalaris table:

1. Appleseed (Variable dates)
2. Barnes et al. 1971
3. Baxter & Slaytor 1972
4. Gander et al. 1976
5a. Marten et al. 1973
5b. Marten et al. 1974
6. Mulvena & Slaytor 1982
7. Mulvena & Slaytor 1983
8. Oram & Williams 1967
9. Rendig et al. 1970
10. Rendig et al. 1976
11. Williams et al. 1971

For complete citations please see the reference listings