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“Excretion and metabolism of epinephrine and norepinephrine in man.”.
Molecules and Mental Health. 1959;p77.
In view of the relations between affect and sympathetics, the renal excretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine was determined after administration of sympathicotonics (insulin, LSD) and after emotional stress. . On one healthy subject a daily insulin tolerance test was performed for 5 days. The initially observed increase of epinephrine excretion was markedly reduced on the 4th and 5th day and during unchanged hypoglycemia the subjective and objective reaction was also decreased. Three psychiatric patients showed under insulin treatment an increase in epinephrine and a decrease in norepinephrine excretion. . Seven schizophrenic, 4 manic-depressive and 3 cases of involutional melancholia were given 150-300 mcg. LSD orally. The schizophrenics showed no psychic change or change in the epinephrine or norepinephrine excretion. The epinephrine excretion was markedly increased in cases with involutional melancholia and manic depression (from 0.21 to 1.11 or 1.38 mcg/hr), the norepinephrine excretion was only increased in the latter group (from 2.8 to 10.4 mcg/hr). . Studies on normal and psychiatric patients with emotional stress showed that active aggressive emotional displays increased the excretion of norepinephrine and also of epinephrine. In passive emotional displays the excretion of epinephrine (in unchanged norepinephrine) was also increased. . Comment: In the discussion, Axelrod elucidated the metabolism of epinephrine. In rat urine, the 3- methoxy-4-hydroxy metabolite of epinephrine, names metaepinephrine was found as metanephrine glucuronide and normetanephrine glucuronide. After administration of authentic metaepinephrine 35% was excreted and 65 0.000000urther metabolized. Thus about 700f epinephrine is methylated. . He also found that epinephrine is first methylated and then deaminated. Possible pathway of epinephrine in rats: . An enzyme which can carry the O-methylation of catecholamines was found in a number of mammalian species including man. . (See 334)
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