Plants - Drugs Mind - Spirit Freedom - Law Arts - Culture Library  
Spiral Erowid Zip Hoodie
This black mid-weight zip hoodie (80/20) has front pockets,
an Erowid logo on front chest, and a spiral design on back.
Donate and receive yours!
Tryptamine FAQ
The Tryptamine FAQ
by Petrus Pennanen ( with help from Michael from Melbourne
v 1.9 May 20 2014 (v1.0 - 1991, last major update Jun 1999)
Originally published on Usenet
Citation:   Pennanen P, Melbourne M. "The Tryptamine FAQ". May 20 2014 (v1.0 - 1991, last major update Jun 1999). Online edition:
Erowid Note: This FAQ was not authored by Erowid. It may include out-of-date and/or incorrect information. Please check the version date to see when it was most recently revised. It appears on Erowid as part of our historical archives. For current information, see Erowid's summary pages in the substance's main vault.


Document homepage

Thanks to many individuals for help in putting this together! If you know sources of tryptamines that are not mentioned here or have other comments please mail me.
  • Psychotropic tryptamine derivatives
    A list of known or possibly psychoactive tryptamines.

  • MAO inhibitors and tryptamines
    MAO is the main enzyme that breaks down tryptamines in humans.

  • Self-synthesis of DMT derivatives
    Enzymes in our bodies also construct tryptamines.

  • The Carriers: Animals, Fungi and Plants.

  • References
  • Suppliers
  • Image credits

    Psychotropic Tryptamine Derivatives

    Data compiled from Kantor, et al. 1980; Shulgin 1976, 1982; Shulgin & Carter 1980,
    McKenna & Towers 1984, Shulgin & Shulgin 1997

    Name of Compound R2 N1 N2 alpha R4 R5 R6 Dosage
    Route Duration
    Typical effects in mentioned dose range
    tryptamine H H H H H H H 250 i.v. short
    Severe physical symptoms
    DMT (dimethyltryptamine)
    (@ Deoxy, @ Erowid, @ Lycaeum)
    H CH3 CH3 H H H H 30-100 par up to 1
    Intense psychedelic and hallucinogenic
    2-Me-DMT CH4 CH3 CH3 H H H H 50-100 oral 4-6
    Tactile sensitivity increased, sound distortion
    4-HO-DMT, psilocin H CH3 CH3 H OH H H 10-20 oral 3-6
    Psychedelic, more earth-bound and less abstract than LSD. Not a stimulant. Phosphate ester is psilocybin.
    5-HO-DMT, bufotenine H CH3 CH3 H H OH H 8-16 i.v. 1-2
    Severe physical symptoms.
    5-MeO-DMT H CH3 CH3 H H OCH3 H 5-20 par 1-2
    Intense psychedelic, less visual than DMT
    5-MeS-DMT H CH3 CH3 H H SCH3 H 15-30 par <1
    4,5-MDO-DMT H CH3 CH3 H MeO2 H ? ? ?
    5,6-MDO-DMT H CH3 CH3 H H MeO2 >5 ? ?
    5-MeO-TMT CH3 CH3 CH3 H H OCH3 H 75-150 oral 5-10
    Sense-enhancing psychedelic, significant physical side-effects at high doses
    4-HO-MET H CH3 C2H5 H OH H H 15-30 par <1
    Similar to psilocin
    DET (@ Erowid) H C2H5 C2H5 H H H H 50-100 oral 2-4
    2-Me-DET CH3 C2H5 C2H5 H H H H 80-120 oral 6-8
    Sound distortion, more cloudy than 2-Me-DMT
    4-HO-DET, CZ-74 H C2H5 C2H5 H OH H H 10-25 oral 4-6
    Psychedelic with significant physical side-effects at high doses.
    5-MeO-DET H C2H5 C2H5 H H OCH3 H 1-3 oral 3-4
    Sense-enhancing psychedelic with heavy physical symptoms
    6-HO-DET H C2H5 C2H5 H H H OH 10 i.m. 4
    DET-like effects in one report
    DPT (@ Erowid) H n-prop n-prop H H H H 60-250 oral 2-4
    Psychedelic with significant physical side-effects at high doses
    4-HO-DPT H n-prop n-prop H OH H H >20? oral? ?
    DIPT H i-prop i-prop H H H H 25-100 oral 6-8
    Auditory distortion and -hallucinations
    4-HO-DIPT H i-prop i-prop H OH H H 15-20 oral 2-3
    Intense and dose-sensitive psychedelic, mild physical symptoms
    5-MeO-DIPT (@ Erowid) H i-prop i-prop H H OCH3 H 6-12 oral 4-8
    Sense-enhancing psychedelic with some auditory distortion
    4,5-MDO-DIPT H i-prop i-prop H MeO2 H >25 oral ?
    5,6-MDO-DIPT H i-prop i-prop H H MeO2 ? oral? ?
    MIPT (@ Erowid) H i-prop CH3 H H H H 10-25 oral 3-4
    Stimulating, sense-enhancing psychedelic
    4-HO-MIPT H i-prop CH3 H OH H H 6 oral ?
    Sense-enhancing psychedelic, not stimulating
    4-MeO-MIPT H CH3 H H OCH3 H H 20-30 oral 4-6
    Sense-enhancing psychedelic
    5-MeO-MIPT H CH3 H H H OCH3 H 4-6 oral 4-6
    Sense-enhancing psychedelic
    5,6-MDO-MIPT H CH3 H H H MeO2 >50 oral ?
    Some light-headedness at 75 mg
    EIPT H i-prop C2H5 H H H H 24-40 oral 4-6
    Slightly psychedelic with dysphoric components and nausea
    alpha,N-DMT H CH3 H CH3 H H H 50-100 oral 6-8
    Some amphetamine-like lightheadedness, loss of appetite
    H CH3 H CH3 H OCH3 H 10-20 oral 6-8
    Somewhat uninspiring psychedelic
    MBT H C4H9 CH3 H H H H 250-400 oral 4-6
    Slightly hallucinogenic with heavy physical symptoms
    AMT, IT-290 (@ Erowid) H H H CH3 H H H 15-30 oral 12-16
    Stimulating psychedelic with little visuals and significant physical symptoms at high doses
    4-HO-AMT H H H CH3 OH H H 20 oral ?
    Dizzy hallucinogen severe physical symptoms
    5-F-AMT H H H CH3 H F H 25 oral ?
    Potent MAOI, an antidepressant rather than a psychedelic.
    5-MeO-AMT H H H CH3 H OCH3 H 2.5-4.5 oral 12-18
    Psychedelic, slight nausea or diarrhea at about 1 hour
    AET H H H CH2CH3 H H H 100-150 oral 6-8
    Euphoric entactogenesis. Potential treatment for opiate withdrawal.
    5-MeO-AET H H H CH2CH3 H OCH3 H 50-75 oral ?
    Some psychedelia with stimulant effects
    serotonin H H H H H OH H 100 oral ?
    Neurotransmitter, does not pass the blood-brain-barrier. Cardiovascular and autonomic symptoms.
    pyr-T H tetraMe H H H H ? oral ?
    Dizzy psychedelia with severe physical symptoms
    5-MeO-pyr-T H tetraMe H H OCH3 H 0.5-2 oral several
    Severe physical symptoms, anaesthesia
    2,alpha-DMT CH3 H H CH3 H H H 300-500 oral 7-10
    Subtle psychedelia, not a stimulant
    NPT H H propyl H H H H ? ? ?
    Unknown, also holds for the i-propyl version (NIPT)
    NBT H H butyl H H H H ? ? ?
    Unknown, also holds for the i-butyl version (NIBT)
    NSBT H H s-butyl H H H H 25-75 oral short
    Generalized and diffuse intoxication
    NTBT H H t-butyl H H H H 5-20 oral ?
    Light headed, pleasant intoxication (similarities to GHB)
    4,alpha-DMT, MP 809 H H H CH3 H CH3 H 60 oral ?
    An antidepressant rather than a psychedelic
    5,alpha-DMT H H H CH3 H CH3 H ? ? ?
    melatonin H acetyl H H H OCH3 H 0.5-75 oral -
    Induces sleep, resets circadian rhythm. An antioxidant.

    Other potentially psychedelic tryptamines include:
    6-F-AMT, 7-methyltryptamine, 5-methyltryptamine, 5-fluorotryptamine,
    6-fluorotryptamine and 5- and 6-fluorotryptophans.

    MAO inhibitors and tryptamines

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is the primary inactivation pathway of most tryptamines. That's why inhibitors of the MAO enzyme (MAOIs) can be used to potentiate the effects of tryptamines and to make DMT and 5-MeO-DMT orally active.

    MAO inhibitors fall into two classes: Irreversible and reversible MAOIs. In addition they can inhibit either or both of the two types of the MAO enzyme, MAO-A and MAO-B which are associated with serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons respectively. Irreversible MAOIs (e.g. the hydrazides iproniazid and phenelzine) bind permanently to the enzyme and cause MAO inhibition lasting 1-2 weeks after ingestion. They are used clinically to treat depression. Reversible MAOIs, such as moclobemide, which is used as an antidepressant, and the beta-carbolines harmine and harmaline, are effective for much shorter time, maybe up to 24 hours. Recreational drug users around the world are using mainly harmine and harmaline despite the lack of scientific studies on their effects on humans.

    Natives of Amazon have traditionally combined Banisteriopsis caapi vine, which contains harmine, harmaline and related beta-carbolines, with DMT-containing plants to make an orally active brew called ayahuasca (@ Erowid). Other plants containing harmine and/or harmaline can be substituted for B. caapi. The usual 'North American ayahuasca' consists of Peganum harmala ( picture, another picture, seeds and Desmanthus illinoensis roots, and in Australian 'acaciahuasca' leaves of Acacia complanata are combined with material from DMT-containing acacias (the effectivity of this mixture hasn't been confirmed). Nausea is minimized in 'pharmahuasca', which consists of pure DMT and a reversible MAO-inhibitor such as harmine or moclobemide. When the DMT is in a plant extract taking it with a pure MAO inhibiting substance instead of a plant containing MAOIs usually reduces nausea and other body load significantly. MAOIs have also been used to potentiate the effects of mushrooms containing psilocybin and even phenethylamines -- the latter combination can be very dangerous. DPT ingested with MAOIs has been called 'propylhuasca'; DPT is orally active by itself and its dosage should be smaller when potentiated by MAOIs.

    Peganum harmala (Syrian rue) seeds - pictured - are the most concentrated natural source of harmine and harmaline - about 3% of their weight consists of these alkaloids. Banisteriopsis caapi has been found to contain from 0.18% to 1.36% beta-carbolines, with the concentration of harmine being from 0.057% to 0.635% (McKenna et al. 1984). According to anecdotal reports one gram (corresponding to approx. 30 mg of harmine/harmaline) of P. harmala seeds ingested inhibits MAO enough to make DMT orally active, while 75 mg of moclobemide is sufficient for the same purpose.

    Harmine and harmaline are hallucinogenic on their own with doses starting from around 300 mg (Naranjo 1967), but often cause physical side-effects such as nausea and tremors in this dose range. They have little emotional or 'psychedelic' effects, but produce strong visual hallucinations. Because of this the natives of Amazon often add larger amounts (75-100 cm of stem per dose) of B. caapi to ayahuasca brew than is needed for MAO inhibition (Luna 1984). The psychedelic effects of moclobemide at normal antidepressant doses (e.g. 150 mg/day) are limited to slight hallucinations of the sense of balance, which is rarely affected by other drugs.

    A combination of a MAO inhitor and DMT tends to induce drowsiness. Perhaps this is why natives often smoke tobacco and/or drink caffeine-containing drinks while preparing and tripping on ayahuasca. The MAO-B inhibition of nicotine might also be a reason for smoking it, although it is unclear to which extent inhibition of just MAO-B activates or potentiates tryptamines.

    There are significant dangers in using MAO inhibitors. Most MAOIs potentiate the cardiovascular effects of tyramine and other monoamines found in foods. Ingestion of aged cheese, beer, wine, pickled herring, chicken liver, yeast, large amounts of coffee, citrus fruits, canned figs, broad beans, chocolate or cream while MAO is inhibited can cause a hypertensive crisis including a dangerous rise in blood pressure. You can also look at a more complete list of foods to avoid when receiving MAOI therapy. MAOIs interact with other psychoactive substances in addition to tryptamines; effects of amphetamines, general anaesthetics, sedatives, anti-histamines, alcohol, potent analgesics and anticholinergic and antidepressant agents are prolonged and intensified. Overdosage of MAOIs by themselves is also possible with effects including hyperreflexia and convulsions. It should be noted, however, that these strict warnings apply best in the case of irreversible MAOIs, and many users of reversible MAOIs to activate or potentiate tryptamines are not quite as careful with no apparent ill effects.

    Self-synthesis of DMT Derivatives

    Tryptamine derivatives and beta-Carbolines have been detected as endogenous metabolites in mammals, including humans. Methyl transferases that catalyze the synthesis of tryptamines, including DMT, 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenine, are found in human lung, brain, cerebrospinal fluid, liver and heart (McKenna & Towers 1984). In the pineal gland MAO is the primary inactivation pathway of serotonin, a neurotransmitter synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan. If MAO is blocked by harmine, harmaline or other MAO inhibitors serotonin can be converted by the methyltransferase enzymes HIOMT and INMT into psychedelic tryptamines (serotonin --(HIOMT)--> 5-MeO-trypt. --(2*INMT)--> 5-MeO-DMT).

    So, ingesting l-tryptophan to increase serotonin levels, a candy bar to increase the amount of tryptophan getting to your brain and natural plant material containing 25-50 mg harmine/harmaline to block MAO, all at the same time, might cause your pineal gland to synthesize substantial amounts of 5-MeO-DMT (Most 1986). Similar results might be obtained by substituting 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) for tryptophan. Normal sleep-inducing doses of melatonin have also been taken with reversible MAOIs with the resulting psychoactive effects suggesting significant interaction of the two substances. This is extremely dangerous for persons with existing amine imbalance or schizophrenia. For normal, healthy people possible consequences are bad.

    A potent inhibitor of INMT, which is a necessary enzyme for the synthesis of DMT and 5-MeO-DMT, is found in particularly high concentrations in the pineal gland. A bypassing or inhibition of the synthesis of this inhibitor might be responsible for trances and other psychedelic states achieved "without drugs" (Strassman 1990). See Strassman's article for more info and speculation about the pineal gland.

    The Animals

    Many animals, including mammals, contain psychoactive tryptamines. Below are two examples.

    • Family: Hominidae
    • Genus: Homo
    • Species: sapiens
    Small amounts of DMT and 5-MeO-DMT can be found in the cerebrospinal fluid of psychiatrically normal humans, schizophrenics and manics (Corbett et al. 1978).
    • Genus: Bufo
    • Species: alvarius
    Bufotenine and related 5-hydroxy-indolethylamines are common constituents of venoms of the genera Hyla, Leptodactylus, Rana and Bufo. Bufotenine is not psychedelic in reasonable doses (with larger doses there are dangerous physiological side effects), but the skin of one species, Bufo alvarius, contains 50-160 mg 5-MeO-DMT/g of skin (Daly & Witkop 1971). It's a very large (upto 17 cm) toad with cranial crests and elongated parotid glands, and is the only Bufo species known to contain a hallucinogenic tryptamine (McKenna & Towers 1984). Most (1984) gives instructions for collecting and drying the venom:
    Fresh venom can easily be collected without harm to the toad. Use a flat glass plate or any other smooth, nonporous surface at least 12-inches square. Hold the toad in front of the plate, which is fixed in a vertical position. In this manner, the venom can be collected on the glass plate, free of dirt and liquid released when the toad is handled.

    When you are ready to begin, hold the toad firmly with one hand and, with the thumb and forefinger of your other hand, squeeze near the base of the gland until the venom squirts out of the pores and onto the glass plate. Use this method to systematically collect the venom from each of the toad's granular glands: those on the forearm, those on the tibia and femur of the hind leg, and, of course, the parotids on the neck. Each gland can be squeezed a second time for an additional yield of venom if you allow the toad a one-hour rest preiod. After this the glands are empty and require four to to six weeks for regeneration.

    The venom is viscous and milky-white in color when first squeezed from the glands. It begins to dry within minutes and acquires the color and texture of rubber cement. Scrape the venom from the glass plate, dry it thoroughly, and store it in an airtight container until you are ready to smoke it.
    Davis and Weil (1992) smoked the venom and described what happened:
    In comparison to the pure compounds the toad venom appears longer lasting and, because one does not completely lose contact with reality, far more pleasant, even sensual. Shortly after inhalation I experienced warm flushing sensations, a sense of wonder and well-being, strong auditory hallucinations, which included an insect-cicada sound that ran across my mind and seemed to link my body to the earth. Though I was indoors, there was a sense of the feel of the earth, the dry desert soil passing through my fingers, the stars at midday, the scent of cactus and sage, the feel of dry leaves through hands. Strong visual hallucinations in orblike brilliance, diamond patterns that undulated across my visual field. The experience was in every sense pleasant, with no disturbing physical symptoms, no nausea, perhaps a slight sense of increased heart rate. Warm waves coursed up and down my body. The effects lasted only a few minutes but a pleasant afterglow continued for almost an hour. (Wade Davis, personal observation, January 12, 1991)

    Profound alteration of consciousness within a few seconds of exhaling. I relax into a deep, peaceful interior awareness. There is nothing scary about the effects and no sense of toxicity. I try to describe my feelings but am unable to talk for the first five minutes and then only with some difficulty. This is a powerful psychoactive drug, one that I think would appeal to most people who like the effects of hallucinogens. For the next hour I feel slow and velvety, with a slight pressure in my head. No long-lasting effects to report. (Andrew T. Weil, personal observation, January 12, 1991).
    Other animals contain DMT such as the gorgonian Paramuricea chamaeleon (Cimino & De Stefano, 1978).

    he Fungi

    The psychoactive tryptamines in fungi are mainly psilocybin and psilocin although others are also present. Paul Stamets has compiled a comparison of combined maximum percentages of psilocybin, psilocin and baeocystin in 11 species of Psilocybe.

    • Family: Bolbitiaceae
    • Genus: Agrocybe
    • Species: farinacea
    Contains psilocybin (Koike et al. 1981). [Erowid Note: Alan Rockefeller states that this was a false positive.]
    • Genus: Conocybe
    • Species: cyanopus, kuehneriana, siligineoides, smithii
    C. cyanopus (Benedict et al. 1962) and C. smithii (Benedict et al. 1967) contain psilocybin and psilocin while C. kuehneriana contains psilocin only (Ohenoja et al. 1987). C. siligineoides may also contain these alkaloids (Schultes & Hofmann 1979 p. 40).
    • Family: Coprinaceae
    • Genus: Copelandia
    • Species: anomala, bispora, cambodginiensis, chlorocystis, cyanescens, tropicalis
    All species contain psilocin and psilocybin, for C. cyanescens (Schultes & Hofmann 1979 p. 40) and for C. cambodginiensis as well as C. tropicalis (Arora, 1986), and for C. anomala as well as C. bispora (Merlin & Allen, 1993).
    • Genus: Panaeolina,
    • Species: castaneifolius, foenisecii
    P. foenisecii contains psilocybin (Robbers et al. 1969). [Erowid Note: Alan Rockefeller states that this is a false positive.]
    • Genus: Panaeolus
    • Species: africanus, antillarum, ater, campanulatus, firmicola, microsporus, olivacens, retirugis, separatus, sphinctrinus, subbalteatus
    Several Panaeolus species contain psilocybin. For P. antillarum refer to Allen et al. (1991), for P. ater refer to Bresinsky et al. (1990), for P. papilionaceus (Gurevich et al. 1992), for P. retirugis (Fiussello et al. 1971/72), for P. separatus ((Miller Jr. 1972), for P. sphinctrinus (Hein & Wasson, 1958 p. 322) and for P. olivacens (Ohenoja et al. 1987). [Erowid Note: Alan Rockefeller states that Panaeolus antillarum, Panaeolus ater, Panaeolus campanulatus, Panaeolus retirugus, Panaeolus sphinctrinus, are all false positives.] P. subbalteatus contains both psilocin and psilocybin (Ohenoja et al. 1987) but was known to be hallucinogenic since 1959 (Stein, 1959). P. firmicola is also described as hallucinogenic and probably contains the same alkaloids (Schultes, 1979).
    • Genus: Psathyrella
    • Species: candollenana
    Contains psilocybin (Koike et al. 1981) and psilocin (Ohenoja et al. 1987). [Erowid Note: Alan Rockefeller states that Psathyrella candolleana was a false positive and does not contain psilocybin-type chemicals.]
    • Family: Cortinariaceae
    • Genus: Galerina
    • Species: steglichii
    Contains psilocybin and psilocin (Besl, 1993).
    • Genus: Gymnopilus
    • Species: aeruginosus, liquiritiae, luteus, purpuratus, spectabilis, validipes, viridans
    Many Gymnopilus contain psilocybin, for G. aeruginosus, G. luteus, G. spectabilis, G. validipes and G.viridans refer to Hatfield et al. (1978). For G. liquiritiae (Koike, 1981) and for G. purpuratus (Gartz 1991).
    • Genus: Inocybe
    • Species: aeruginascens, calamistrata [Erowid Note: Alan Rockefeller states that I. calamistrata was a false positive and does not contain psilocybin-type chemicals.], coelestium, corydalna, haemacta, tricolor
    These contain psilocin and psilocybin, for P. aeruginascens see Haeselbarth et al. (1985) and for the others Stijve et al. (1985).
    • Family: Lepiotaceae
    • Genus: Lepiota
    • Species: humei Murrill also known as peele "Peele's Lepiota"
    This mushrooms was claimed by Peele of Florida Mycology Research Center (FMRC, POB 18105, Pensacola, FL 32523) to contain a legal tryptamine, which produces a trip with less physical symptoms and better ability of logical thinking than psilocin or psilocybin. Bioassay results didn't find psychoactivity (Akers 1992). [Erowid Note: Alan Rockefeller states that this species has been shown not to contain any psychoactive tryptamines.]
    • Family: Pluteaceae
    • Genus: Pluteus
    • Species: atricapillus, cyanopus, glaucus, nigroviridis, salicinus
    P. atricapillus contains psilocybin (Ohenoja et al. 1987) while P. salicinus (Saupe 1981), P. nigroviridis (Christiansen et al. 1984) and P. glaucus (Stijve & De-Meijer 1993) contain psilocin and psilocybin.
    • Family: Polyporaceae
    • Genus: Gerronema
    • Species: fibula, swartzii
    These contain psilocybin. [Erowid Note: Alan Rockefeller states that G. fibula and G. swartzii were a false positives and does not contain psilocybin-type chemicals.]
    • Genus: Hygrocybe
    • Species: psittacina
    This contains psilocybin. [Erowid Note: Alan Rockefeller has stated that Hygrocybe psittacina is now known not to contain psilocybin and related compounds. -- May 20, 2014]
    • Family: Strophariaceae
    • Genus: Psilocybe (@ erowid)
    • Species: 75 Known hallucinogenic species such as cubensis (pictured)+ antioquensis, aucklandii, beliconiae, coprophila, crobulus, guatapensis, makarorae, samuiensis, subacutipilea
    There are at least 75 mushroom species in this genera that contain psilocin and psilocybin in Guzman 1983, and there are several more recently discovered species such as P. aucklandii (Guzman et al. 1993), P. samuiensis (Guzman et al. 1991) and P. antioquensis, P. beliconiae, P. guatapensis and P. subacutipilea (Guzman et al. 1994) and P. makarorae (Johnston & Buchanan 1995). Also P. coprophila, while lacking psilocin (making it a non-blueing psilocybe) is known to contain psilocybin (Arora, 1986). P. crobulus is also known to be hallucinogenic (Phillips, 1981).

    Images of Psilocybe azyrescens, baeocystis, cubensis, cyanescens, cyanofibrillosa, azurescens, pelliculosa, semilanceata, silvatica, stuntzii and weilii can be seen at A Gallery of Psilocybe Mushrooms

    The Plants

    • Family: Acanthaceae
    • Genus: Justicia
    • Species: pectoralis (var. stenophylla)
    Waikas of Orinoco headwaters in Venezuela add dried and pulverized leaves of this herb to their Virola-snuff. Intensely aromatic smelling leaves probably contain tryptamines (Schultes 1977).
    • Family: Aizoaceae
    • Genus: Delosperma
    Contains DMT and N-methyltryptamine (Rivier & Pilet, 1971).
    • Family: Alariaceae
    • Genus: Ecklonia
    • Species: maxima
    Crouch et al. (1992) reported finding DMT in brown seaweed extract sold as Kelpak and intended to be used as a plant fertilizer. However, subsequent analysis by J. Gartz suggests none is present.
    • Family: Apocynaceae
    • Genus: Prestonia
    • Species: amazonica?
    May contain DMT but the specimen used may have been misidentified (Smith 1977).
    • Family: Cactaceae
    • Genus: Echinocereus
    • Species: salm-dyckianus, triglochidiatus
    These cacti growing in Mexico are known to Tarahumare Indians as peyote or hikuli and used in their festivals. E. triglochidiatus contains a tryptamine derivative, possibly 5-MeO-DMT (Bye 1979). E. salm-dyckianus is also supposed to contain tryptamines according to Horus Botanicals catalog 1992.
    • Genus: Trichocereus
    • Species: terscheckii "Cardon grande"
    DMT has been isolated from this species growing in North-Western Argentina (Schultes & Hofmann 1979 p. 58).
    • Family: Caesalpininaceae
    • Genus: Petalostylis
    • Species: cassiodies
    Leaves and stem contain 0.4-0.5% tryptamine, DMT and other alkaloids (Johns et al. 1966).
    • Family: Fabaceae
    • Genus: Desmodium
    • Species: gangetium, gyrans, tiliaefolium, triflorum,
    Leaves, root, stem and seeds contain DMT and 0.06% 5-MeO-DMT of wet weight (Banerjee & Ghosal 1969).
    • Genus: Lespedeza
    • Species: bicolor
    Leaves and root contain DMT and 5-MeO-DMT (Smith 1977). Seeds of this hardy perennial shrub are available from commercial suppliers.
    • Genus: Mucuna
    • Species: pruriens
    Leaves, stem and fruit of this jungle vine contains DMT and 5-MeO-DMT (Ghosal et al., 1971). Seeds are available from commercial suppliers.
    • Genus: Phyllodium
    • Species: pulchellum
    Dried plant material produced 0.2% 5-MeO-DMT and small amounts of DMT (Ghosal & Mukherjee 1966).
    • Family: Mimosaceae
    • Genus: Anadenanthera (Piptadenia)
    • Species: colubrina (picture @ Erowid) contorta, excelsa, macrocarpa, peregrina
    Columbus first noted the use of a snuff made from A. peregrina called Cohoba by the Taino Indians of an island called Hispaniola. Black beans from this tree (and possibly others above) are toasted, pulverized and mixed with ashes or calcined shells to make psychedelic snuff called yopo by Indians in Orinoco basin in Colombia, Venezuela and possibly in southern part of Brasilian Amazon. Yopo is blown into the nostrils through bamboo tubes or snuffed by birdbone tubes. Its use was first reporter in 1801 by A. von Humboldt and was later studied by R. Spruce. Snuff made from A. colubrina is called vilca in Bolivia, and might have been used as an enema by the Incas.

    The trees grow in open plain areas, and leaves, bark and seeds contain DMT, 5-MeO-DMT and related compounds (Schultes 1976, 1977; Pachter et al. 1959; Phytochem 11, 737). Smoking half a gram of A. colubrina seeds has been reported to give a mild psychedelic effect.
    • Genus: Acacia
    • Species: confusa, jurema, maidenii pictured (pictures @ Erowid), niopo, nubica, phlebophylla, polycantha subsp. campylacantha, senegal, simplex, tortilis
    Dried A. confusa stems contain 0.04% N-methyltryptamine and 0.02% DMT (Arthur et al. 1967). The dried leaves of A. phlebophylla contain 0.3% DMT (Rovelli & Vaughan 1967). The bark of A. maidenii contains 0.6% of N-methyltryptamine and DMT in the proportions approx. 2:3 (Fitzgerald & Sioumis 1965). A. simplex also contains DMT (Poupat et al. 1976). Several Sudanese species have DMT (Wahba & Elkheir, 1975). Seeds of several acacia species are available from commercial suppliers.
    • Genus: Desmanthus
    • Species: illinoensis pictured (pictures @ Erowid) "Illinois Bundleflower"
    Thompson et al. report that the root bark of this North American perennial shrub contains 0.34% DMT and 0.11% N-methyltryptamine. The bark accounts for about a half of the total weight of the roots. The plant should be resistant to cold and draught and easy to grow. D. illinoensis seeds, dried root and dried root bark can be ordered from several suppliers. Seeds are also available from more main-stream mail-order houses.
  • Genus: Mimosa
  • Species: scabrella, tenuiflora (== hostilis) "tepescohuite" pictured, verrucosa The roots of M. hostilis, which is not the common houseplant M. pudica ("sensitive plant"), contain 0.57% DMT and are used by Indians of Pernambuso State in Brazil as part of their Yurema cult (Pachter et al. 1959, Schultes 1977, (Meckes-Lozoya et al. 1990). The root bark can be powdered e.g. in a coffee grinder, boiled in 30% lemon juice for an hour and strained through a paper filter to produce liquid for ingestion. 8-20 g of the root bark prepared this way has been reported to give a trip with nausea, both the intensity of the psychedelic effect and the nausea being strong at the 20 g dosage. An acid-base extraction method (involving e.g. hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide and petroleum ether with CaCO2 for drying) can be used to get DMT crystals, which can then be smoked (below, a recipe for Phalaris). As M. hostilis root bark is one of the most concentrated plant sources of DMT mild effects can be felt from smoking ground bark. M. scabrella contains DMT and N-methyltryptamine (De Moraes et al., 1990). Bark of M. verrucosa also contains DMT (Smith 1977).
    • Genus: Testulea
    • Species: gabonensis
    Contains DMT (Leboeuf et al., 1977).
    • Family: Malpighiaceae
    • Genus: Banisteriopsis
    • Species: muricata (=argentea), rusbyana (see Diplopterys cabrerana)
    Both contain DMT (Smith 1977).
    Natives of western Amazon add DMT- and N-methyltryptamine containing leaves of the vine D. cabrerana to a drink made from Banisteriopsis caapi, which contains beta-carbolines harmine and harmaline (Schultes 1977, Smith 1977). D. cabrerana is also known as Banisteriopsis rusbyana. 3-8 leaves of this plant can be boiled in water containing lemon juice for one or two hours and filtered to produce a relatively easily ingested liquid that is active when combined with MAO-inhibitors. With 6 leaves the psychedelic effect from such a brew has been reported to be strong, with minimal nausea compared to e.g. M. hostilis.
    • Family: Myristicaceae
    • Genus: Horsfieldia
    • Species: superba
    Contains 5-MeO-DMT as well as a beta-carboline (Jossang et al. 1991).
    • Genus: Iryanthera
    • Species: macrophylla
    The bark contains 5-MeO-DMT (Holmstedt et al. 1980).
    • Genus: Virola
    • Species: calophylla, calophylloidea, rufula, sebifera, theiodora (pictured)
    The bark resin of these trees is used to prepare hallucinogenic snuffs in northwestern Brazil by boiling, drying and pulverizing it. Sometimes leaves of a Justicia are added. The snuff acts rapidly and violently, "effects include excitement, numbness of the limbs, twitching of facial muscles, nausea, hallucinations, and finally a deep sleep; macroscopia is frequent and enters into Waika beliefs about the spirits resident in the drug." Snuffs made from V. theiodora bark contain up to 11% 5-MeO-DMT and DMT. Also leaves, roots and flowers contain DMT.

    Amazonian Colombia natives roll small pellets of boiled resin in a evaporated filtrate of bark ashes of Gustavia Poeppigiana and ingest them to bring on a rapid intoxication (Smith 1977, Schultes 1977).
    • Family: Pandanaceae
    • Genus: Pandanus "Screw pine"
    DMT has been isolated from Pandanus nuts growing in New Guinea (Barrau 1958, 1962).

    • Family: Poaceae
    • Genus: Arundo
    • Species: donax pictured,
    Leaves, flowers and rhizomes contain DMT, bufotenine and related compounds (Ghosal et al. 1972).
    • Genus: Phalaris
    • Species: aquatica (tuberosa) pictured, arundinacea
    Leaves of P. arundinacea and leaves and seedlings of P. aquatica contain DMT, 5-MeO-DMT and related compounds (Smith 1977). P. arundinacea plants are available from commercial suppliers.

    Jim DeKorne (1996) has reported that strong varieties of P. Arundinacea can be processed simply with a wheatgrass juicer to yield a liquid that is potent enough for one teaspoon to be effective with MAOIs. He has prepared a potent smokable extract as follows: grass clippings are pulverized and water is added to make a pourable mixture, which is then acidified to about pH 5. The mix can then be heated overnight while evaporation is not allowed. The plant matter is separated by first using a cheesecloth and then a paper coffee filter. 10-15% of the mass of the resulting solution of a "defatting solvent" (e.g. methylene chloride, ether, chloroform, or naptha) is then added. After vigorous shaking the water containing the alkaloids is separated from the solvent. A base is added to the aqueous solution in small increments until the pH gets to about 9 or 10, which converts the alkaloids into their free base. Extraction is then performed four times with an organic solvent, comprising 10% of the mass of the solution, first after 24 hours and then at three weekly intervals, while the solvent layer takes on a darker tint (usually yellowish or reddish-brown). In total the extraction takes almost a month and the solution should be shaken at least twice a day between extractions. To isolate the alkaloids the solvent is finally evaporated from the combined extract fractions.
    • Genus: Phragmites
    • Species: australis
    Rhizomes contain DMT (Wassel et al. 1985).

    • Family: Rubiaceae
    • Genus: Psychotria
    • Species: carthaginensis, viridis (psychotriaefolia) pictured, picture 2, picture 3,
    Psychotria leaves are added to a hallucinogenic drink prepared from Banisteriopsis caapi and B. rusbyana (which contain beta-carbolines) to strengthen and lengthen the effects in western Amazon. P. carthaginensis and P. viridis both contain DMT (Rivier, 1972). P. viridis seeds are available from commercial suppliers.
    • Family: Rutaceae
    • Genus: Dictyoloma
    • Species: incanescens
    Bark contains 0.04% 5-MeO-DMT (Pachter et al. 1959).

    • Genus: Limonia
    • Species: acidissima
    Contains DMT (Abu Zarga, 1986).
    • Genus: Melicope
    • Species: leptococca
    Contains 5-MeO-DMT as well as 5-MeO-DMT-Oxide and a beta-carboline (Skaltsounis et al. 1983).
    • Genus: Vepris
    • Species: ampody
    The leaves and branches contains up to 0.2% DMT (Kan-Fan 1970).
    • Genus: Zanthoxylum
    • Species: aborescens
    Contains DMT (Grina et al., 1982).


    Abu Zarga, M.H. 1986. Three new simple indole alkaloids from Limonia acidissima. Lloydia 49(5), 901-904.

    Akers, B.P. 1992. Peele's Lepiota: An identification and a clarification. Mycotaxon 43(0), 461-469.

    Arora, D. 1986. Mushrooms Demystified: A Comprehensive Guide to the Fleshy Fungi. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley.

    Arthur, H.R., Loo, S.N. & Lamberton, J.A. 1967. Nb-methylated tryptamines and other constituents of Acacia confusa Merr. of Hong Kong. Aust. J Chem. 20, 811.

    Banerjee, P.K. & Ghosal, S. 1969. Simple indole bases of Desmodium gangeticum. Aust. J Chem. 22, 275-277.

    Barrau, J. 1958.
    Nouvelles observations au sujet des plantes hallucinogenes d'usage autochtone en Nouvelle-Guinee. J Agric. Trop. Bot. Appl. 5, 377-378.

    Barrau, J. 1962.
    Observations et travaux recents sur les vegetaux hallucinogenes de la Nouvelle-Guinee. J Agric. Trop. Bot. Appl. 9, 245-249.

    Benedict, R.G., Brady, L.R., Smith, A.H. & Tyler, V.E. 1962.
    Occurrence of psilocybin and psilocin in certain Conocybe and Psilocybe species. Lloydia 25, 156-159.

    Benedict, R.G., Tyler, V.E. & Watling, R. 1967.
    Blueing in Conocybe, Psilocybe and a Stropharia Species and the Dectection of Psilocybin. Lloydia 30(2), 150-157.

    Besl, H. 1993.
    Galerina steglichii spec. nov., a hallucinogenic Galerina. Zeitschrift fuer Mykologie 59(2), 215-218.

    Bresinsky, A. & Besl, H. 1990.
    A Colour Atlas of Poisonous Fungi. Wolfe Publishing Ltd, London.

    Bye, R.A. 1979.
    Hallucinogenic plants of the Tarahumara. J. Ethnopharmacology 1, 23-48.

    Corbett, L., Christian, S.T., Morin, R.D., Benington, F. & Smythies, J.R. 1978.
    Hallucinogenic N-methylated indolealkylamines in the cerebrospinal fluid of psychiatric and control populations. British J. Psychiatry 132, 139.

    Christiansen, A.L., Rasmussen, K.E. & Hoeiland, K. 1984.
    Detection of psilocybin and psilocin in Norwegian species of Pluteus and Conocybe. Planta Med. 50, 341-343.

    Cimino, G. & De Stefano, S. 1978.
    Chemistry of Mediterranean Gorgonians. Simple indole derivatives from Paramuricea chamaeleon. Comptes Rendus Biochem. Physiol. Ser. C. 61, 361-362.

    Crouch, I.J., Smith M.T., Van Staden J., Lewis, M.J. & Hoad, G.V. 1992.
    Identification of auxins in a commercial seaweed concentrate. J Plant Physiology 139(5), 590-594.

    Daly, J.W. & Witkop, B. 1971.
    Chemistry and pharmacology of frog venoms. In: Venomous animals and their venoms. Vol II. New York: Academic Press.

    Davis, W. & Weil, A.T. 1992.
    Identity of a New World Psychoactive Toad. Ancient Mesoamerica 3 (1992) 5, 51-59.

    DeKorne, J. 1996
    Ayahuasca analogs and Plant-Based Tryptamines.

    De Moraes, E.H.F., Alvarenga, Z.M.A., Ferreira, Z.M.G.S. & Alisue, G. 1990.
    Quim. Nova 13, 308.

    Fitzgerald, J.S. & Sioumis, A.A. 1965.
    Alkaloids of Australian Leguminosae V. Aust. J Chem. 18, 433.

    Fiussello, N. & Ceruti-Scarti, J. 1971/72.
    Presenza di psilocibina edi 5-idrossi-indolderivati in Panaeolus retirugis. Atti Acc. Sci. Torino 106, 725-735.

    Gartz, J. 1991.
    Influence of phosphate on fruiting and secondary metabolism of mycelia of Psilocybe cubensis, Psilocybe semilanceata and Gymnopilus purpuratus. Zeitschrift fuer Mykologie 57(1), 149-154.

    Ghosal, S., Chaudhuri, R.K., Dutta, S.K. & Bhattacharya, S.K. 1972.
    Occurrence of curaromimetic indoles in the flowers of Arundo donax. Planta Med. 21, 22.

    Ghosal, S. & Mukherjee, B. 1966.
    Indole-3-alkylamine Bases of Desmodium pulchellum. J, Org. Chem. 31, 2284.

    Ghosal, S., Singh, S. & Bhattacharya, S.K. 1971.
    Alkaloids of Mucuna pruriens, Chemistry and Pharmacology. Planta Med. 19, 279

    Grina, J.A. et al. 1982.
    Constituents of Zanthoxylum aborescens. Part 7. Old & new alkaloids from Zanthoxylum aborescens. J. Organic Chemistry 47, 2648-2651.

    Gurevich, L.S. 1993.
    Indole derivatives in certain Panaeolus species from East Europe & Siberia. Mycological Research 97(2), 251-254.

    Gurevich, L.S. & Astapenko, V.V. 1992.
    Chromatographic study of some indole metabolites in Panaeolus basidiomycetes. Mikologiya I Fitopathologiga 26(3), 189-194.

    Guzman, G. 1983.
    The Genus Psilocybe. Beihefte Zur Nova Hedwingia 74, 1-439.

    Guzman, G., Bandala, V.M. & Allen, J.W. 1993.
    A New Bluing Psilocybe from Thailand. Mycotaxon 26, 155-160.

    Guzman, G., Bandala, V.M. & King, C. 1991.
    A New Species of Psilocybe of Section Zapotecorum from New Zealand. Mycological Research 95, 507-508.

    Guzman, G., Saldarriaga, Y., Pineda, F., Garcia, G. & Velazquez, L.F. 1994.
    New Species of Psilocybe from Colombia and Discussion on the known species. Mycotaxon , 225.

    Haeselbarth, G., Michaelis, H. & Salnikow, J. 1985.
    Nachweis von Psilocybin in Inocybe aeruginescens. Mykol. Mitt. bl. 28(1), 59-62.

    Hatfield, G.M., Valdes, L.J. & Smith, A.H. 1978.
    The occurrence of psilocybin in Gymnopilus species. Lloydia 41, 140-144.

    Hein, R. & Wasson, R.G. 1958.
    Les champignons hallucinogenes du Mexique. Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

    Holmstedt, B., Lindgren, J.E., et al. 1980.
    Indole alkaloids in Amazonian Myristicaceae: Field and laboratory research. Bot. Mus. Leafl., Harvard Univ. 28, 215-234.

    Johns, S.R., Lamberton, J.A. & Sioumis, A.A. 1966.
    Alkaloids of the Australian Leguminosae VI. Aust. J Chem. 19, 893.

    Johnston, P.R. & Buchanan, P.K. 1995.
    The genus Psilocybe (Agaricales) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal Botany 33(3), 379.

    Jossang, A., Jossang, C., Hadi, H.A., Sevenet, T. & Bodo, B. 1991.
    Horsfiline, an oxindole alkaloid from Horsfieldia superba. J. Organic Chem. 56(23), 6527-6530.

    Kan Fan, C. et al. 1970.
    Alcaloides de Vepris ampody (Rutacees). Phytochem. 9, 1283-1291.

    Kantor, R.E., Dudlettes, S.D. & Shulgin, A.T. 1980.
    5-Methoxy-alfa-methyl- tryptamine (alfa,O-dimethylserotonin), a hallucinogenic homolog of serotonin. Biological Psychiatry Vol 15, 349-352.

    Koike, Y., Wada, K., Kusano, G., Nozoe, S., & Yokoyama, K. 1981.
    Isolation of Psilocybin from Psilocybe argentipes and its Determination in Specimens of some Mushrooms. Lloydia 44(3), 362-365.

    Leboeuf, M. et al., 1977.
    Alkaloids and triterpenes of Testulea gabonensis. Plant Medicine Phytotherapy 11, 230.

    Luna, L.E. 1984.
    The Healing Practices of a Peruvian Shaman. J. Ethnopharmacology 11, 123-133.

    McKenna, D.J., Towers, G.H.N., & Abbott, F. (1984).
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors in South American hallucinogenic plants: Tryptamines and Beta-carboline constituents of ayahuasca. J Ethnopharmacology 10, 195-223.

    Mckenna, D.J. & Towers, G.H.N. 1984.
    Biochemistry and Pharmacology of Tryptamines and beta-Carbolines: A Minireview. J Psychoactive Drugs 16(4).

    Meckes-Lozoya, M., Lozoya, X., Marles, R.J., Soucy-Breau, C., Sen, A. & Arnason, J.T. 1990.
    N,N-dimethyltryptamine alkaloid in Mimosa tenuiflora bark (tepescohuite). Arch. Invest. Med. Mex. 21(2), 175-7.

    Merlin, M.D. & Allen, J.W. 1993.
    Species identification and chemical analysis of psychoactive fungi in the Hawaiian islands. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 40(1), 21-40.

    Miller Jr., O.K. 1972.
    Mushrooms of North America. Dutton & Co., Springfield.

    Most, Albert. 1984.
    Bufo Alvarius: the Psychedelic Toad of the Sonoran Desert. Venom Press Box 2863 Denton TX 76202.

    Most, Albert. 1986.
    Eros and the Pineal: the layman's guide to cerebral solitaire. Venom Press, Denton, TX.

    Naranjo, C. 1969.
    Psychotropic Properties of the Harmala Alkaloids. In: Efron (Ed.) The Ethnopharmacologic Search for Psychoactive Drugs.

    Ohenoja, E., Jokiranta, J., Makinen, T., Kaikkonen, A. & Airaksinen, M.M. 1987. The Occurrence of Psilocybin and Psilocin in Finnish Fungi. Lloydia 50(4), 741-744.

    Ott, J. 1993. Pharmacotheon. Pangean Entheogens.

    Ott, J. 1994. Ayahuasca Analogues. Natural Products Co..

    Pachter, I.J, Zacharias, D.E & Ribeir, O. 1959.
    Indole Alkaloids of Acer saccharinum (the Silever Maple), Dictyoloma incanescens, Piptadenia colubrina, and Mimosa hostilis. J Org Chem 24, 1285-7.

    Phillips, R. 1981.
    Mushrooms and other fungi of Great Britain and Europe. Pan Books, London.

    Poupat, C., Ahond, A. & Sevenet, T. 1976.
    Alcaloides De Acaia simplicifolia. Phytochemistry 15, 2019-2120.

    Rivier, L. & Lindgren, J-E. 1972.
    "Ayahuasca," the South American Hallucinogenic Drink: an Ethnobotanical and Chemical Investigation. Economic Botany 26, 101-129.

    Rivier, L. & Pilet, P.E. 1971.
    Annee Biologique 10, 129.

    Robbers, J.E., Tyler, V.E. & Ola'h, G.M. 1969.
    Additional evidence supporting the occurrence of psilocybin in Panaeolus foenisecii. Lloydia 32, 399-400.

    Rovelli, B. & Vaughan, G.N. 1967.
    Alkaloids of Acacia I. Dimethyltryptamine in Acacia phlebophylla. Aust. J Chem. 20, 1299-1300.

    Saupe, S.G. 1981.
    Occurence of Psilocybin/Psilocin in Pluteus salicinus (Pluteaceae). Mycologia 73, 781-784.

    Schultes, R.E. 1976.
    Indole Alkaloids in Plant Hallucinogens. J of Psychedelic Drugs Vol 8(1), 7-25.

    Schultes, R.E. 1977.
    The Botanical and Chemical Distribution of Hallucinogens. J of Psychedelic Drugs Vol 9(3), 247-263.

    Schultes, R.E. 1979.
    Hallucinogenic Plants: Their Earliest Botanical Descriptions. J of Psychedelic Drugs Vol 11(1-2), 13-24.

    Schultes, R.E. & Hofmann, A. 1979.
    Plants of the Gods. McGraw-Hill. Reprint available from Healing Arts Press, Rochester, VT.

    Schultes, R.E. & Hofmann, A. 1980.
    The Botany and Chemistry of Hallucinogens. Springfield, Ill: Thomas.

    Shulgin, A.T. 1976.
    Psychotomimetic agents. In: Gordon, M. (Ed.) Psychopharmacological Agents, Vol IV. New York: Academic Press.

    Shulgin, A.T. 1982.
    Chemistry of Psychotomimetics. In: Hoffmeister, F. & Stille, G. (Eds.) Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Vol 55: Alcohol and Psychotomimetics, Psychotropic Effects of Central-Acting Drugs. New York: Springer-Verlag.

    Shulgin, A.T. & Shulgin, A. 1997.
    Tihkal -- The Continuation. Berkeley: Transform Press.

    Skaltsounis, A.L., Tillequin, F. & Koch, M. 1983.
    Plantes des Nouvelle- Caledonie LXXXIII: Alcaloides des tiges feuillees de Melicope leptococca. Lloydia 46(5), 732.

    Smith, T.A. 1977.
    Review: Tryptamine and Related Compounds in Plants. Phytochemistry 16 171-175.

    Stein, S.I. 1959.
    Clinical Observations on the Effects of Panaeolus venenosus Versus Psilocybe caerulescens Mushrooms. Mycologica 51, 49.

    Stijve, T., Klan, J. & Kugper, W. 1985.
    Occurrence of psilocybin and baeocystin in the genus Inocybe. Persoonia 12, 469-472.

    Stijve, T. & De Meijer, A.A.R. 1993.
    Macromycetes from the state of Parana, Brazil. 4. The psychoactive species. Arquivos de Biologia e Tecnologia (Curitiba) 36(2), 313-329.

    Strassman, R.J. 1990.
    The Pineal Gland: Current Evidence For Its Role In Consciousness. In: Lyttle, T. (Ed.) Psychedelic Monographs and Essays Vol 5.

    Thompson, A.C., Nicollier, G.F. & Pope, D.F 1987.
    Indolealkylamines of Desmanthus illinoensis and Their Growth Inhibition Activity. J Agric. Food Chem. 35, 361-365.

    Wahba, S.K. & Elkheir, Y.M. 1975.
    Dimethyltryptamine from the leaves of certain Acacia species of northern Sudan. Lloydia 38, 176-177.

    Wassel, G.M. et al. 1985.
    Alkaloids from the rhizomes of Phragmites australis Cav. Scientia Pharmaceutica 53, 169-170.



    Images from

    © Petrus Pennanen 1999

    * Everything is perfect forever [-P.P.]
    * Ditto [-M.]
    Revision History #
    • v1.0 - 1991 - Petrus Pennanen - Usenet FAQ, actively maintained for several years .
    • v1.5 - 1999 - PP, Various - Last major update.
    • v1.9 - 2014 - Erowid - Added unmaintained notice, added note that Hygrocybe psitticina is not considered to contain psilocybin and related compounds.