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Adamowicz P, Gieron J, Gil D, Lechowicz W, Skulska A, Tokarczyk B. 
“The prevalence of new psychoactive substances in biological material - a three-year review of casework in Poland”. 
Drug Test Anal. 2015 Dec 15.
Abstract
New psychoactive substances (NPS) pose a challenge for forensic and clinical toxicologists, as well as for legislators. We present our findings from cases where NPS have been detected in biological material. During the three-year period 2012-2014 we found NPS in 112 cases (out of 1058 analyzed), with 75 cases in 2014 alone. The prevalence of all NPS (15.1-17.6) was similar to amphetamine alone that was detected in 15.1-16.5 of cases. The new drugs found belonged to the following classes: cathinones (88), synthetic cannabinoids (5), phenethylamines (3), piperazines and piperidines (3), arylalkylamines (1) and other (1). The drugs detected were (in the order of decreased frequency): 3-MMC (50), a-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (a-PVP) (23), pentedrone (16), 3',4'-methylenedioxy-a-pyrrolidinobutyrophenone (MDPBP) (12), synthetic cannabinoid UR-144 (7), ethcathinone (5), mephedrone (5), methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) (4), 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC) (3), buphedrone (3), desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP) (3), methylone (2) and 2C-B (2). In single cases, 2-methylmethcathinone (2-MMC), 2C-P, eutylone, 25I-NBOMe, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), ephedrone, methiopropamine (MPA), and 5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (5-APB) were found. One NPS was the sole agent in 35 of all cases, and two or more NPS were present in 19 of cases. NPS (one or more) with other conventional drugs (like amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, and benzodiazepines) were detected in most (65) of the cases. NPS were very often detected in the blood of drivers which was a challenge for toxicologists due to a lack of data on their influence on psychomotor performance. A review of concentrations showed a wide range of values in different types of cases, especially driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) and intoxication. Copyright 2015 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
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