Plants - Drugs Mind - Spirit Freedom - Law Arts - Culture Library  
Erowid References Database
Kusari S, Tatsimo SJ, Zühlke S, Talontsi FM, Kouam SF, Spiteller M. 
“Tramadol--a true natural product?”. 
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2014 Nov 29;53(45):12073-6.
We have independently investigated the source of tramadol, a synthetic analgesic largely used for treating moderate to severe pain in humans, recently found in the roots of the Cameroonian medicinal plant, Nauclea latifolia. We found tramadol and its three major mammalian metabolites (O-desmethyltramadol, N-desmethyltramadol, and 4-hydroxycyclohexyltramadol) in the roots of N. latifolia and five other plant species, and also in soil and local water bodies only in the Far North region of Cameroon. The off-label administration of tramadol to cattle in this region leads to cross-contamination of the soil and water through feces and urine containing parent tramadol as well as tramadol metabolites produced in the animals. These compounds can then be absorbed by the plant roots and also leached into the local water supplies. The presence of tramadol in roots is, thus, due to an anthropogenic contamination with the synthetic compound.
Comments and Responses to this Article
Submit Comment
[ Cite HTML ]