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Zvolensky MJ, Eifert GH. 
“A review of psychological factors/processes affecting anxious responding during voluntary hyperventilation and inhalations of carbon dioxide-enriched air”. 
Clin Psychol Rev. 2001 Apr;21(3):375-400.
Despite advances in our understanding of the nature of anxiety-related responding during periods of elevated bodily arousal, it is not necessarily evident by what psychological mechanisms anxiety is produced and maintained. To address this issue, researchers have increasingly employed biological challenge procedures to examine how psychological factors affect anxious responding during elevated bodily arousal. Of the challenging procedures, hyperventilation and inhalations of carbon dioxide-enriched air have been among the most frequently employed, and a relatively large body of literature using these procedures has now accumulated. Unfortunately, existing reviews do not comprehensively examine findings from hyperventilation and inhalations of carbon dioxide studies, and only rarely the methodological issues specific to these studies. To address these issues, we review the voluntary hyperventilation and carbon dioxide-enriched air literature in order to identify the primary methodological issues/limitations of this research and address the extent to which psychological variables influence anxious responding to such challenges. Overall, we conclude challenge research is a promising paradigm to examine the influence of psychological variables in anxious responding, and that such work will likely be enhanced with greater attention to psychological process issues.

Key Words: carbogen
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