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Beitia G, Cobreros A, Sainz L, Cenarruzabeitia E. 
“Ecstasy-induced Toxicity in Rat Liver”. 
Liver. 2000;20(1):8-15.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of single and repeated administration of 3,4-methylenedioxyme-thamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') on rat liver.

METHODS: Animals were given an acute (20 mg/kg) and repeated (20 mg/kg, b.i.d., for 4 consecutive days) intraperitoneal dose of MDMA, and at various times after administration the hepatic and serum determinations were made.

RESULTS: The effect of acute MDMA administration included increased triglyceride and cholesterol levels and an increase in all enzyme activities 6 h post administration. The toxic effect of MDMA was also observed in other hepatic processes. Glycogen content showed a marked decrease, which was accompanied by a decrease in serum glucose levels. No significant changes in lipid peroxidation and hepatic GSH content were observed. In contrast, multiple MDMA administration produced some evidence of oxidative stress, namely, increased MDA content and decreased GSH content, a small decrease in liver glycogen at 3 h recovering 6 h post dose, no effect on blood glucose and increased AST and ALP activities but no effects on ALT activity. Seven days after the last MDMA injection a tendency towards recovery was shown. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the liver toxicity caused by MDMA administration involves several mechanisms.
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