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Esecover H, Malitz S, Wilkens B. 
“Clinical profiles of paid normal subjects volunteering for hallucinogen drug studies”. 
Amer.J.Psychiat.. 1961;117:910-915.
The problem of "normalcy" of so-called normal persons volunteering for experiments with hallucinogenic drugs (LSD, psilocybin, etc.) was studied in 56 paid volunteers (46 males, 10 females). Psychiatric evaluations were made over a period of several years. Prevalence of psychopathology in the volunteer group seemed quite high. Psychiatric diagnoses were made in 46 per cent of the 56 volunteers and 41 per cent were estimated as needing psychiatric treatment. . The motives leading the persons to volunteer for the experiments differed. Two groups of volunteers could be distinguished: those mainly motivated by financial needs and scientific interest and those with motives related to varying degrees of psychiatric illness (obsessional and schizoid types predominating). Thus the authors recommend a careful screening of volunteers for psychiatric research.
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