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Schuster P, Lieb R, Lamertz C, Wittchen HU. 
“Is the use of ecstasy and hallucinogens increasing? Results from a community study”. 
Eur Addict Res. 1998 Mar;4(1-2):75-82.
This report presents findings of a community survey of 3,021 adolescents and young adults aged 14-24 years in Munich, Germany, carried out to determine the prevalence of use and abuse of and dependence on ecstasy, amphetamines and hallucinogens. The response rate was 71%.

RESULTS: (1) In 1995, 4% of the male and 2.3% of the female respondents aged 14-24 reported the use of ecstasy. Ecstasy-related substances (amphetamines and chemically related substances) were reported by 3.6% of men and 1.6% of women. Hallucinogens were reported slightly less frequently by 3% of men and about 2% of women (LSD combined with others). (2) Compared to findings from a 1990 survey this constitutes a substantial, at least twofold, increase in consumption rate of both types of substances. (3) Among lifetime users of both ecstasy and related substances as well as hallucinogens about two thirds could be regarded as regular users. (4) The prevalence of DSM-IV abuse and dependence on ecstasy and related substances is about 1%, identical to rates of hallucinogen abuse and dependence. Findings also point to a significant dependence potential for both substances. (5) Furthermore, considerable overlap between the two substances was found. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests a substantial increase in both the use of ecstasy and related substances as well as hallucinogens. The data further suggest that the increase is strongest in younger age groups, but the risk of first use of these substances continues to be present up to the age of 24 years. The higher proportion of women contributing to this increase is noteworthy.
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