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c. 3700 BCE Native Americans in the Rio Grande (Shumla Caves) area collected mescaline containing peyote buttons and manufactured peyote effigy sculptures. 1, 2   [Details] [More Info]
1000 BCE Peyote used ceremonially by indigenous cultures in Texas and Mexico. 3  
Jun 15, 1521 The use of hallucinogenic mushrooms and peyote are driven underground as use of "non-alcohol" intoxicants is forbidden by Europeans in Mexico. Catholic priests punish the use of entheogens by native people.   
1560 Spanish priest Bernardino de Sahagún writes in his Florentine Codex about the use of peyote and hallucinogenic teonanacatl mushrooms by the Aztecs. He estimates peyote has been in use since at least 300 B.C. 3  
1550 - 1750 Determined effort by Spaniards to stamp out peyote practices amongst native Mexicans. Peyote use is denounced by European catholics as an act of witchcraft and superstition because it was for "purposes of detecting thefts, of divining other happenings and foretelling future events." Its use was equated with cannibalism in some catholic texts. 3  
1638 The first proper botanical description of Peyote is made by Hernandez, the naturalist of Philip II of Spain. 4  
1760 There is some evidence that the use of peyote has spread into the United States. 5  
Late 19th Century Peyote first classified as Echinocactus williamsii in 1845, changed to Anhalonium williamsii in 1872, Mammillaria williamsii in 1891. Later changed to Lophophora williamsii.   
1847 First published image of peyote appeared in Curtis' Botanical Magazine.   
1857 One of the earliest mentions of peyote as a drug uses the term "whiskey-root".    [Details]
Early 1870s Peyote use spreads more widely into the United States. 3  
1872 Peyote classification changed to Anhalonium williamsii by Voss.   
1887 Dried Peyote buttons are distributed by Parke Davis & Co. 6  
1888 Botanist Paul Hennings published a report on Lophophora chemistry, leading to further investigations by other botanists. 6  
Late 1800s North American indians brought back knowledge of Peyote from raids on Mexico. Along with another contemporary movement, the Ghost Dance, Peyote use spread quickly among the Indian tribes of America. Indian prophets like Quanah Parker added Christianity to traditional beliefs and formed the basis of the Peyote ritual practiced most commonly today by the Native American Church. 6, 7   [Details] [More Info]
1892 German explorer Lumhotz described ceremonial Peyote use among the Huichol and Tarahumara, and sent samples of the cacti to Harvard for Botanical analysis. 6  
1894 Peyote classified as Lophophora williamsii.   
Dec 1896 Two early experience reports describing the effects of a peyote extract are published in The British Medical Journal. 8  
Nov 23, 1897 Mescaline is first isolated and identified by German pharmacologist and chemist Arthur Heffter. 9   [Details] [More Info]
1902 An early article on peyote titled "Mescal: A Study of a Divine Plant" is published in Popular Science Monthly. 5  
1918 The Native American Church is formed. James Mooney, a Smithsonian Institute archeologist who traveled through Oklahoma in 1891 participating in various Peyote ceremonies, became convinced of the need to unite the Indians and protect their legal right to worship with Peyote. He called together meeting of all of the great roadmen in 1918 where he wrote the charter for and incorporated the Native American Church. 6  
1918 Mescaline is first synthesized by Austrian chemist Ernst Späth. 10   [More Info]
1922 An estimated 13,000-22,000 ceremonial users of Peyote in the U.S. 3  
1927 An extensive study of mescaline's effects in 32 human subjects is published, Kurt Beringer's Der Meskalinrausch: Seine Geschichte und Erscheinungsweise [The Mescaline High: Its History and Expression]. 11   [More Info]
1930 By 1930 over a dozen states had outlawed possession of Peyote, largely as an anti native american statement. 12  
Oct 1945 US Navy Technical Mission reports on mescaline experiments at the Nazi Dachau concentration camp.   
1947 U.S. Navy initiates mescaline studies under the auspices of 'Project Chatter'. 13  
1952 Dr. Humphry Osmond begins working with hallucinogens at a hospital in Saskatchewan, looking at the similarity between mescaline and the adrenaline molecule. 13  
May 6, 1953 At 11:00 am on May 6, 1953, Aldous Huxley tries mescaline 400 mg for the first time under the supervision of Dr. Humphry Osmond. During the experience, he commented, This is how one ought to see, how things really are. 14, 15   [More Info]
1954 The Doors of Perception by Aldous Huxley is published describing his 1953 experience with mescaline.   
1960 Arizona Judge Yale McFate rules that Native Americans are guaranteed access to the Peyote sacrament under the First and Fourteenth amendments.   
Apr 2, 1960 Dr. Alexander Shulgin first tries mescaline at 350 mg. 16, 17   [Details]
1967 Peyote is banned federally in the U.S. (ref??)   
Oct 27, 1970 The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act is passed. Part II of this is the Controlled Substance Act (CSA) which defines a scheduling system for drugs. It places most of the known hallucinogens (LSD, psilocybin, psilocin, mescaline, peyote, cannabis, & MDA) in Schedule I. It places coca, cocaine and injectable methamphetamine in Schedule II. Other amphetamines and stimulants, including non-injectable methamphetamine are placed in Schedule III.   
1991 Alexander and Ann Shulgin publish PiHKAL, documenting over 250 phenethylamines, including MDMA, mescaline, 2C-B, 2C-T-7, 2C-T-2, and many others. 17  
Nov 8, 2003-
Mar 31, 2004
Mythic Visions: Yarn Paintings of a Huichol Shaman Exhibit    [Details] [More Info]
Oct 28-29, 2010 Pratiques Contemporaines des Plantes Psychotropes [Contemporary Practices with Psychotropic Plants]    [Details] [More Info]

  1.   Terry M, Steelman KL, Guilderson T, Dering P, Rowe MW. "Lower Pecos and Coahuila peyote: new radiocarbon dates". J Archaelogical Science. 2006;33:1017-21.
  2.   El-Seedi HR, Smet PA, Beck O, et al. "Prehistoric peyote use: Alkaloid analysis and radiocarbon dating of archaeological specimens of Lophophora from Texas". J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;101(1-3):238-42.
  3.   Stafford P. Psychedelics Encyclopedia. Ronin. 1992.
  4.   La Barre W. The Peyote Cult. U Oklahoma Press, 1989.
  5.   Ray O, Ksir C. Drugs, Society, and Human Behavior. Mosby, 1996.
  6.   Trenary K. "History of Mescaline".
  7.   Stewart OC. "Peyote Religion". 1987.
  8.   Mitchell SW. "Remarks on the effects of Anhelonium lewinii (the mescal button)". The British Medical Journal. Dec 5 1896;1625-1629.
  9.   Heffter A. “Ueber Pellote. Beitrag zur chemischen und pharmakologischen Kenntnis der Cacteen (Zweite Mittheilung)”. Arch Exp Path Pharm. 1898;40:423.
  10.   Späth E. “Über die Anhalonium-Alkaloide. I. Anhalin und Mezcalin”. Monatshefte für Chemie und verwandte Teile anderer Wissenschaften. 1919;40(2):129-154.
  11.   Stuart, R. "Modern Psychedelic Art's Origins as a Product of Clinical Experimentation". The Entheogen Review. 2004;13(1):12-22.
  12.   Gottlieb A. Peyote and Other Psychoactive Cacti. Ronin, 1997.
  13.   Lee MA, Shlain B. Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD and the Sixties Rebellion. Grove, 1985.
  14.   Huxley A. The Doors of Perception. Harper Collins, 1956
  15.   Horowitz M, Palmer C. Moksha. Stonehill Publishing Company, 1977.
  16.   Shulgin AT. Pharmacology Notes IV. Page 471.
  17.   Shulgin AT, Shulgin A. PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story. Transform Press. 1991.