Erowid
 
 
Plants - Drugs Mind - Spirit Freedom - Law Arts - Culture Library  
Thanks for the Successful Annual Support-a-thon!
During our annual support drive, we ask YOU to support reliable drug information by helping Erowid reach a new high for the number of donations in a single month. This year we reached 1,228 which is a new record!

Donate by Bitcoin
Khat
Timeline
by Erowid
6th Century One scholarly theory describes that khat use began in Yemen before the 6th Century at which time it was brought to Ethiopia. Another theory is that khat use began in Ethiopia itself before this time. 1  
1065 The earliest printed reference to khat is found in the Kitab al-Saidana fi al-Tibb, a work on pharmacy and materia medica written by Abu al-Biruni 1   [Details]
1222 Khat is first identified as a plant useful for its healing properties in an Arabic book of medicinal remedies by Nagib ad-Din as-Samarkandi of Turkestan. 1  
c. 1400 Al-Maqrizi (1364-1442) describes khat use in a history of the Ethiopian wars of the period. 2   [Details]
14th or 15th Century The popular use of khat in Yemen begins in the southern part of the western highlands. 3  
17th Century A poetic play written by Yemeni Jew Sholem bin Joseph al-Shibezi presents a dialog between coffee and khat, evidence that khat was in use by Yemeni Jews at this time. 1  
1775 Swedish botanist Pehr Forsskal provides the first concise description of khat in European literature after visiting Yemen in 1763. 1  
Late 19 Century European scientists investigate the chemistry and pharmacology of khat.   
1920s and 1930s Khat-based pharmaceuticals and "agents of pleasure" are sold in London, including catha-cocoa milk. 2  
1930 Cathine is first isolated from Catha edulis.   
1970s Cathinone is first isolated from Catha edulis.   
1980 WHO classifies khat as a drug of abuse.   
Mar 26, 1982 The U.S. FDA issues the first of several Import Alerts about Catha edulis declaring it an unapproved drug and stating that it should be seized at the border. 4  
May 17, 1988 The DEA places cathine, one of the psychoactive alkaloids in khat, in Schedule IV on a temporary basis in order to comply with international treaties. Though formal scheduling was required within a "reasonable" period of time, no formal scheduling procedures have been undertaken and the temporary scheduling is still in effect. 5  
Feb 9, 1993 The FDA issues an additional Import Alert stating Catha edulis "will be subject to the same controls as cathine" and should be seized at the U.S. border. 6  
1993 Cathinone is placed in Schedule I under the Controlled Substances Act in the United States.   


References
  1.   Kiple K, Ornelas K. The Cambridge World History of Food. Cambridge University Press. 2000.
  2.   Rštsch C. The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants. Park Street Press. 1998.
  3.   Kennedy JG. The Flowers of Paradise. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1987.
  4.   Federal Register. Vol 60(155): Aug 11, 1995.
  5.   Erowid F. "Khat Faces Legal Challenges". Erowid Extracts. Nov 2007;13:3.
  6.   Food and Drug Administration. "Automatic Detention Alert for Catha edulis". IA#66-23. Feb 9, 1993.