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Degradation of Cannabis and THC: Storage Methods and Mold
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Constituents of Cannabis sativa L. XIII: Stability of dosage form prepared by impregnating synthetic (--)-delta 9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol on placebo Cannabis plant material.
Lewis GS, Turner CE
J Pharm Sci 1978 Jun;67(6):876-8

Abstract:
Synthetic (--)-delta 9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol impregnated on placebo Cannabis decomposed only 6.3% after being stored for 1 year at --18 degrees. Storage at 5 degrees and room temperature under various conditions led to severe decomposition. The amount of cannabinol observed when (--)-delta 9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol decomposed indicates that cannabinol is not the only decomposition product.



Stability of Cannabis sativa L. samples and their extracts, on prolonged storage in Delhi.
Narayanaswami K, Golani HC, Bami HL, Dau RD
Bull Narc 1978 Oct-Dec;30(4):57-69

Abstract:
The percentage rate of change into cannabinoids (Cannabidiol [CBD], tetrahydrocannabinol [THC] and cannabinol [CBN]) was higher in cannabis samples than in the extracts. This is probalby due to the decomposition of acids into corresponding neutral cannabinoids under the conditions of storage. Previous claims that CBD content in plant material is relatively constant are not substantiated by our results. There was a 1.0-2.5-fold increase in CBD content in plant material compared with the extracts. However, the fact that there was no appreciable increase in CBD/CBN content in the stored extracts of the same samples supports the view that the step-wise extraction does not bring the acids into the final extract pure delta 9THC decomposed at a rate of 41 per cent per year under tropical storage conditions. The delta 9THC content decreased in the samples and equally in the extracts though 100 per cent conversion of THC to CBN does not take place. The higher CBN content found in extracts than that expected by the conversion THC to CBN is a result of metabolic conversion.



The stability of cannabis and its preparations on storage
Fairbairn JW, Liebmann JA, Rowan MG
J Pharm Pharmacol 1976 Jan;28(1):1-7

Abstract:
Solutions of pure cannabinoids, nine samples of herbal and two of resin cannabis (one freshly prepared) were stored in varying conditions for up to 2 years. Exposure to light (not direct sunlight) was shown to be the greatest single factos in loss of cannabinoids especially in solutions, which should therefore be protected from light during analytical and phytochemical operations. Previous claims that solutions in ethanol were stable have not been substantiated. The effect of temperature, up to 20 degrees, was insignificant but air oxidation did lead to significant losses. These could be reduced if care was taken to minimize damage to the glands which act as "well filled, well closed containers". Loss of tetrahydrocannabinol after exposure to light does not lead to an increase in cannabinol, but air oxidation in the dark does. It is concluded that carefully prepared herbal or resin cannabis or extracts are reasonably stable for 1 to 2 years if stored in the dark at room temperature.



Stability of cannabinoids in dried samples of cannabis dating from around 1896-1905 Harvey DJ
J Ethnopharmacol 1990 Feb;28(1):117-28

Abstract:
Cannabinoids from three samples of cannabis obtained from the Pitt-Rivers Museum, Oxford, and dating from the turn of the century were examined by gas chromatography and mass spectometry for the presence of cannabinoids. Although the samples were from different geographical locations, the profiles of constituent cannabinoids were similar. In common with other aged material, most of the cannabinoid content was present as cannabinol (CBN), the main chemical degradation product of the major psychoactive constituent, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC). However, a substantial concentration of CBN acid-A was also present; this compound is unstable to heat and readily undergoes decarboxylation to CBN. Methyl and propyl homologues of CBN, together with delta-9-THC and its naturally occurring acid-A were also found at low concentrations in all samples. Intermediates in the formation of CBN from delta-9-THC, previously identified in aged solutions of the drug, were absent or present in only trace concentrations. However, oxidation products involving hydroxylation at the benzylic positions, C-11 and C-1', not seen in solution, were identified in substantial abundance. The results suggest that decomposition of cannabis samples may proceed more slowly than originally thought.



Examination of fungal growth and aflatoxin production on marihuana
Llewellyn GC, O'Rear CE
Mycopathologia 1977 Dec 16;62(2):109-12

Abstract:
Under favorable growth conditions, Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus produced aflatoxins on marihuana. Cultures of A. flavus ATCC 15548 produced both aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and G1 (AFG1). The production of AFG1 was substantially greater than that of AFB1. Cultures of A. flavus NRRL 3251 and A. parasiticus NRRL 2999 produced only AFB1. All natural flora cultures tested negative for aflatoxins. No Aspergilli sporulations were observed in these cultures. In the cultures inoculated with known toxigenic fungi, the highest mean level for total aflatoxins was 8.7 microgram/g of medium. Marihuana appears not to yield large quantities of these mycotoxins but sufficient levels are present to be a potential health hazard for both the user and the forensic analyst who is in daily contact with such plant material. Careful processing, storage, and sanitation procedures should be maintained with marihuana. If these conditions are disregarded due to the illicit status of marihuana, the potential for mycotoxin contamination must be considered.



Preservation of cannabis
Turner CE, Hadley K
JAMA 1973 Feb 26;223(9):1043-4

No Abstract Available: I'm not sure this is actually on topic, find reference.


Microbiological contaminants of marijuana
McPartland JM, Journal of the International Hemp Association 1: 41-44.
Abstract:
Use of marijuana as a medicament is on the rise. Many medical marijuana users have a suppressed immune system, owing to their disease or treatment. Herbal marijuana, whether field grown or hydroponically cultivated, contains many microorganisms. Many of these organisms may pose a threat to immunosuppressed individuals. The microflora of marijuana is well described in the literature. Similarly, the microflora that cause opportunistic infections in AIDS patients is well documented. These separate literatures are correlated with commentary, and methods for detecting and eliminating microbial contaminants are discussed.




Marijuana smoking and fungal sensitization.
Kagen SL, Kurup VP, Sohnle PG, Fink JN
Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology, 1983 Apr, 71(4):389-93

Abstract:
The possible role of marijuana (MJ) in inducing sensitization to Aspergillus organisms was studied in 28 MJ smokers by evaluating their clinical status and immune responses to microorganisms isolated from MJ. The spectrum of illnesses included one patient with systemic aspergillosis and seven patients with a history of bronchospasm after the smoking of MJ. Twenty-one smokers were asymptomatic. Fungi were identified in 13 of 14 MJ samples and included Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, Mucor, Penicillium, and thermophilic actinomycetes. Precipitins to Aspergillus antigens were found in 13 of 23 smokers and in one of 10 controls, while significant blastogenesis to Aspergillus was demonstrated in only three of 23 MJ smokers. When samples were smoked into an Andersen air sampler, A. fumigatus passed easily through contaminated MJ cigarettes. Thus the use of MJ assumes the risks of both fungal exposure and infection, as well as the possible induction of a variety of immunologic lung disorders.



Fatal aspergillosis associated with smoking contaminated marijuana, in a marrow transplant recipient.
Hamadeh R, Ardehali A, Locksley RM, York MK
Chest, 1988 Aug, 94(2):432-3

Abstract:
A 34-year-old man presented with pulmonary aspergillosis on the 75th day after marrow transplant for chronic myelogenous leukemia. The patient had smoked marijuana heavily for several weeks prior to admission. Cultures of the marijuana revealed Aspergillus fumigatus with morphology and growth characteristics identical to the organism grown from open lung biopsy specimen. Despite aggressive antifungal therapy, the patient died with disseminated disease. Physicians should be aware of this potentially lethal complication of marijuana use in compromised hosts.



Risk factors and outcomes associated with identification of Aspergillus in respiratory specimens from persons with HIV disease. Pulmonary Complications of HIV Infection Study Group.
Wallace JM, Lim R, Browdy BL, Hopewell PC, Glassroth J, Rosen MJ, Reichman LB, Kvale PA
Chest 1998 Jul;114(1):131-7

Abstract:
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine the significance of previously suggested risk factors and assess outcomes associated with Aspergillus identification in respiratory specimens from HIV-seropositive individuals. DESIGN: This was a nested case-control study. Patients who had Aspergillus species identified in respiratory specimens were matched at the time of study entry 1:2 with control subjects according to study center, age, gender, race, HIV transmission category, and CD4 count. SETTING: The multicenter Pulmonary Complications of HIV Infection Study. PARTICIPANTS: HIV-seropositive study participants. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Between November 1988 and March 1994, Aspergillus species were detected in respiratory specimens from 19 (1.6%) participants. The rate of Aspergillus identification among participants with CD4 counts less than 200 cells per cubic millimeter during years 2 through 5 after study entry ranged from 1.2 to 1.9%. Neutropenia, a CD4 count less than 30 cells per cubic millimeter, corticosteroid use, and Pneumocystis carinii infection were associated with subsequent identification of Aspergillus in respiratory specimens. Cigarette and marijuana use, previously suggested risk factors, were not associated with Aspergillus respiratory infection. A substantially greater proportion of patients with Aspergillus compared with control subjects died during the study (90% vs 21%). Excluding four cases first diagnosed at autopsy, 67% died within 60 days after Aspergillus was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Although Aspergillus is infrequently isolated from HIV-infected persons, the associated high mortality would support serious consideration of its clinical significance in those with advanced disease and risk factors.