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From: (dave "who can do? ratmandu!" ratcliffe)
Subject: "Hemp: Lifeline to the Future" -- I gave this to Bill Clinton today  
Message-ID: <>
Date: Mon, 22 Feb 1993 20:54:20 GMT

  The Prez and Vice-Prez of the U.S. visited SGI today.  Along with a "metal-
  detected" crowd I stood outside the cafeteria for an hour-plus (rain coming 
  and going) while they were given a demo of our machines, and then rapped it
  down inside the caf' with a select group of SGI'ers.  Finally they came out
  and walked the cordoned line of us shaking all hands as they went.  

  As Clinton walked by me I was able to hand him two copies of the below (in 
  "prettified" hardcopy format of course--e-mail me if you'd like a PostScript 
  version) while saying "Please read this." with a LOT of emphasis.  I thought
  he might go by too fast or that some SS guy would not let me pass the 
  papers, but there was no resistance, he looked directly at me after I spoke 
  to him and said, "I will." with, what I felt, was straightforward honesty.

  Of course, this is one of the biziest and most sought after people on the
  planet.  Pretty unlikely he'll read this himself, but you just never know.

  I must admit it was pretty exciting.  Now I've got to start sending copies 
  to my lengthy list of military conversion/activist/peace/enviromental/
  officialdom/elected-types/groups and press them with the same questions I 
  ask you all below to ask every- one/group you know/connect with.

Article: 983 of
From: (dave "who can do? ratmandu!" ratcliffe)
Subject: Hemp: Lifeline to the Future - Exercising Our Appropriate Intelligence
Summary: hemp is the world's premier renewable natural resource
Keywords: renewable, cheap, clean instead of limited, dirty, expensive
Organization: Silicon Graphics, Inc.
Date: Thu, 18 Feb 1993 17:49:31 GMT
Lines: 1732


       Locate the blind spot in the culture--the place where the culture 
       isn't looking, because it dare not--because if it were to look 
       there, its previous values would dissolve.      --Terence McKenna

     The following is a transcript of a remarkable commentary on hemp, the
   world's premiere renewable natural resource, by journalist and commentator
   Hugh Downs speaking for ABC News radio out of New York in November, 1990.
   Mr. Downs did his homework exceedingly well for this report--he succeeded
   in including a great deal of useful information in the short timespan of 
   only nine minutes, forty seconds.  Seeking to leverage off the clarity of 
   his research, nine footnotes have been added to the text to provide people 
   with a cross-section of the reference material substantiating the facts
   Mr. Downs articulates.
     It is hoped people will be motivated and inspired by the information 
   below, to understand how, since the mid-thirties, this society has been
   reduced to an infantile status in which the awareness has been lost of how 
   exceedingly useful a natural resource the vegetable hemp is, and, how 
   simply changing the way we have been taught to think about this plant, 
   will enable us to clear away the stagnant, constipated, tired and 
   inappropriate thinking that has inhibited some of the very best qualities 
   of human innovation, creativity, and resourcefulness for more than half a 
     As the documentation below explains, the uses of cannabis hemp are as
   varied and multi-faceted as any of us could ever possibly imagine or hope
   for.  This plant can indeed provide us solutions to MANY of the critical
   imbalances we as an industrial culture have created in the brief span of
   the past few hundred years.  From the production of all forms of paper
   products, to plastics as tough as steel, to fuel that can replace all oil,
   gas, coal and nuclear power consumption, to a rich source of vegetable oil
   and protein, to all manner and form of fabrics and textiles, to medicinal
   products for the management of pain, chronic neurologic diseases, 
   convulsive disorders, migraine headache, anorexia, mental illness, and 
   bacterial infections, to 100% non-toxic paints and varnishes, to 
   lubricants, to building materials that can replace dry wall and plywood,
   to carpets, rope, laces, sails, . . . the list rolls on and on and on.
     And the only thing that prevents us from once again employing this raw
   material for tens of thousands of useful and non-polluting products to 
   replace the dirty, limited and expensive non-renewables derived from 
   toxic petro-chemicals, is the way we have learned to think about hemp: 
       "You can't use it--it's illegal."
       "Even if we could save the planet's life systems by changing that?"
       "That's right."
   This is the kind of frozen, devolutionary thinking we must expand our
   conscious awareness out beyond to once again encompass the capacity for
   hopes and dreams of the kind of world we want to, and can, provide our 
   great-grandchildren's great-grandchildren with.
     Trust your own infinite intelligence and creativity.  There is NO LIMIT
   to what we as sentient beings can do to change the world for the 
   betterment of all.  All we need to appreciate is that any and all change
   starts with how we consider or think about the world.  We can stop 
   cutting down ALL trees used for making paper and fuel;  stop extracting 
   and consuming petroleum we continue to spill into the oceans, as well as 
   be partially consumed and end up forever in the atmosphere destroying the 
   protective screen from the sun that has existed for millions of years;  
   we can stop burning coal and begin to end the recently created phenomenon 
   of acid rain;  we can stop unearthing uranium and transmuting it into the 
   most deadly man-made substance known to human beings.  None of these 
   limited, dirty and expensive forms of energy sources need be relied on 
   anymore.  The choice and decision is all of ours to make and implement.
     Teach yourselves and all you know or meet about this lifeline to our
   collective future.  Send copies of this post to elected/appointed
   officials asking them why cannabis hemp/marijuana prohibition laws are
   allowed to stand when this premier natural resource can truly save the
   planet, ourselves and all future generations of all life on Mother Earth.
   The "leaders" will eventually have to follow and change course from the 
   current going `alternative' of "lemming death."  (As always PostScript 
   versions of this file are available for any wanting "prettified" 

                                                     -- ratitor
                                                        version 1.1

     . . . the most important thing is not to be dualistic.  Our "original 
     mind" includes everything within itself.  It is always rich and 
     sufficient within itself.  You should not lose your self-sufficient 
     state of mind.  This does not mean a closed mind, but actually an 
     empty mind and a ready mind.  If your mind is empty, it is always 
     ready for anything;  it is open to everything.  In the beginner's 
     mind there are many possibilities;  in the expert's mind there are few.
                             -- Shunryu Suzuki, "Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind," 
                                Weatherhill, 1985, p. 21.

     transcript of Hugh Downs commentary on hemp, for ABC News, NY, 11/90:

       Voters in the state of Alaska recently made marijuana illegal again
    for the first time in 15 years.  If Alaska turns out to be like the
    other 49 states, the law will do little to curb use or production.
    Even the drug czar himself, William Bennett, has abandoned the drug war
    now that his "test case" of Washington, D.C., continues to see rising
    crime figures connected with the drug industry.
       Despite the legal trend against marijuana, many Americans continue
    to buck the trend.  Some pro-marijuana organizations in fact tell us
    that marijuana, also known as hemp, could, as a raw material, save the
    U.S. economy.  That's some statment.  Not by smoking it--that's a minor
    issue.  Would you believe that marijuana could replace most oil and
    energy needs?  That marijuana could revolutionize the textile industry
    and stop foreign imports?  Those are the claims.
       Some people think marijuana, or hemp, may be the epidome of yankee
    ingenuity.  Mr. Jack Herer, for example, is the national director and
    founder of an organization called HEMP (that's an acronym for "Help End
    Marijuana Prohibition") located in Van Nuys, California.  Mr. Herer is
    the author of a remarkable little book called, "The Emperor Wears No
    Clothes," wherein, not surprisingly, Mr. Herer urges the repeal of
    marijuana prohibition.
       Mr. Herer is not alone.  Throughout the war on drugs, several
    organizations have consistently urged the legalization of marijuana.
    "High Times" magazine for example, The National Organization to Reform
    Marijuana Laws or NORML for short, and an organization called BACH--the
    Business Alliance for Commerce in Hemp.
       But the reason the pro-marijuana lobby want marijuana legal has
    little to do with getting high, and a great deal to do with fighting
    oil giants like Saddam Hussein, Exxon and Iran.  The pro-marijuana
    groups claim that hemp is such a versatile raw material, that its
    products not only compete with petroleum, but with coal, natural gas,
    nuclear energy, pharmaceutical, timber and textile companies.[1]
       It is estimated that methane and methanol production alone from hemp
    grown as biomass could replace 90% of the world's energy needs.[2]  If
    they are right, this is not good news for oil interests and could
    account for the continuation of marijuana prohibition.  The claim is
    that the threat hemp posed to natural resource companies back in the
    thirties accounts for its original ban.
       At one time marijuana seemed to have a promising future as a
    cornerstone of industry.  When Rudolph Diesel produced his famous
    engine in 1896, he assumed that the diesel engine would be powered by a
    variety of fuels, especially vegetable and seed oils.  Rudolph Diesel,
    like most engineers then, believed vegetable fuels were superior to
    petroleum.  Hemp is the most efficient vegetable.
       In the 1930s the Ford Motor Company also saw a future in biomass
    fuels.  Ford operated a successful biomass conversion plant, that
    included hemp, at their Iron Mountain facility in Michigan.  Ford
    engineers extracted methanol, charcoal fuel, tar, pitch, ethyl-acetate
    and creosote.  All fundamental ingredients for modern industry and now
    supplied by oil-related industries.[2]
       The difference is that the vegetable source is renewable, cheap and
    clean, and the petroleum or coal sources are limited, expensive and
    dirty.  By volume, 30% of the hemp seed contains oil suitable for
    high-grade diesel fuel as well as aircraft engine and precision machine
       Henry Ford's experiments with methanol promised cheap, readily
    renewable fuel.  And if you think methanol means compromise, you should
    know that many modern race cars run on methanol.
       About the time Ford was making biomass methanol, a mechanical
    device[3] to strip the outer fibers of the hemp plant appeared on the
    market.  These machines could turn hemp into paper and fabrics[4] 
    quickly and cheaply.  Hemp paper is superior to wood paper.  The first 
    two drafts of the U.S. constitution were written on hemp paper.  The 
    final draft is on animal skin.  Hemp paper contains no dioxin, or other
    toxic residue, and a single acre of hemp can produce the same amount of
    paper as four acres of trees.[5]  The trees take 20 years to harvest 
    and hemp takes a single season.  In warm climates hemp can be harvested
    two even three times a year.  It also grows in bad soil and restores 
    the nutrients.
       Hemp fiber-stripping machines were bad news to the Hearst paper
    manufacturing division, and a host of other natural resource firms.
    Coincidentally, the DuPont Chemical Company had, in 1937, been granted
    a patent on a sulfuric acid process to make paper from wood pulp.  At
    the time DuPont predicted their sulfuric acid process would account for
    80% of their business for the next 50 years.
       Hemp, once the mainstay of American agriculture, became a threat to
    a handful of corporate giants.  To stifle the commercial threat that
    hemp posed to timber interests, William Randolph Hearst began referring
    to hemp in his newspapers, by its Spanish name, "marijuana."  This did
    two things:  it associated the plant with Mexicans and played on racist
    fears, and it misled the public into thinking that marijuana and hemp
    were different plants.
       Nobody was afraid of hemp--it had been cultivated and processed into
    usable goods, and consumed as medicine, and burned in oil lamps, for
    hundreds of years.  But after a campaign to discredit hemp in the
    Hearst newspapers, Americans became afraid of something called
       By 1937, the Marijuana Tax Act was passed which marked the beginning
    of the end of the hemp industry.  In 1938, "Popular Mechanics" ran an
    article about marijuana called, "New Billion Dollar Crop."[6]  It was
    the first time the words "billion dollar" were used to describe a U.S.
    agricultural product.  "Popular Mechanics" said,

        . . . a machine has been invented which solves a problem more
       than 6,000 years old. . . .
             The machine . . . is designed for removing the fiber-
       bearing cortex from the rest of the stalk, making hemp fiber
       available for use without a prohibitive amount of human labor.
             Hemp is the standard fiber of the world.  It has great
       tensile strength and durability.  It is used to produce more
       than 5,000 textile products ranging from rope, to fine laces,
       and the woody "hurds" remaining after the fiber has been
       removed, contain more than seventy-seven per cent cellulose,
       and can be used to produce more than 25,000 products ranging
       from dynamite to cellophane.

       Well since the "Popular Mechanics" article appeared over half a
    century ago, many more applications have come to light.  Back in 1935,
    more than 58,000 tons of marijuana seed were used just to make paint
    and varnish (all non-toxic, by the way).  When marijuana was banned,
    these safe paints and varnishes were replaced by paints made with toxic
    petro-chemicals.  In the 1930s no one knew about poisoned rivers or
    deadly land-fills or children dying from chemicals in house paint.
    People did know something about hemp back then, because the plant and
    its products were so common.
       All ships lines were made from hemp and much of the sail canvas.
    (In fact the word "canvas" is the Dutch pronunciation of the Greek word
    for hemp, "cannabis.")  All ropes, fozzers (sp?) and lines aboard ship,
    all rigging, nets, flags and pennants were also made from marijuana
    stalks.  And so were all charts, logs and bibles.
       Today many of these items are made, in whole or in part, with
    synthetic petro-chemicals and wood.  All oil lamps used to burn hemp-
    seed oil until the whale oil edged it out of first place in the mid-
    nineteenth century.  And then, when all the whales were dead,
    lamplights were fueled by petroleum, and coal, and recently radioactive
       This may be hard to believe in the middle of a war on drugs, but the
    first law concerning marijuana in the colonies at Jamestown in 1619,
    ordered farmers to grow Indian hemp.  Massachussetts passed a
    compulsory grow law in 1631.  Connecticut followed in 1632.  The
    Chesapeake colonies ordered their farmers, by law, to grow marijuana in
    the mid-eighteenth century.  Names like Hempstead or Hemphill dot the
    American landscape and reflect areas of intense marijuana cultivation.
       During World War II, domestic hemp production became crucial when
    the Japanese cut off Asian supplies to the U.S.  American farmers (and
    even their sons), who grew marijuana, were exempt from military duty
    during World War II.  A 1942 U.S. Department of Agriculture film called
    "Hemp For Victory" extolled the agricultural might of marijuana and
    called for hundreds of thousands of acres to be planted.[8]  Despite a
    rather vigorous drug crackdown, 4-H clubs were asked by the government
    to grow marijuana for seed supply.  Ironically, war plunged the
    government into a sober reality about marijuana and that is that it's
    very valuable.
       In today's anti-drug climate, people don't want to hear about the
    commercial potential of marijuana.  The reason is that the flowering
    top of a female hemp plant contains a drug.  But from 1842 through the
    1890s a powerful concentrated extract of marijuana was the second most
    prescribed drug in the United States.  In all that time the medical
    literature didn't list any of the ill effects claimed by today's drug
       Today, there are anywhere from 25 to 30 million Americans who smoke
    marijuana regularly.  As an industry, marijuana clears well more than
    $4 billion a year.  [This must have been a misreading of his notes--for 
    1990, the minimum figure would have been at least $40 billion for the 
    entire nation.  (phone interview with Jack Herer)]   Obviously, as an 
    illegal business, none of that money goes to taxes.  But the modern 
    marijuana trade only sells one product, a drug.  Hemp could be worth 
    considerably more than $4 [$40] billion a year, if it were legally 
    supplying the 50,000 safe products the proponents claim it can.
       If hemp could supply the energy needs of the United States, its
    value would be inestimable.  Now that the drug czar is in final
    retreat, America has an opportunity to, once and for all, say farewell
    to the Exxon Valdez, Saddam Hussein and a prohibitively expensive
    brinkmanship in the desert sands of Saudi Arabia.
       This is Hugh Downs, ABC News, New York.

       Humanity has been held to a limited and distorted view of itself, 
       from its interpretation of the most intimate emotions to its 
       grandest visions of human possibilities, by virtue of its 
       subordination of women.
          Until recently, "mankind's" understandings have been the only
       understandings generally available to us.  As other perceptions 
       arise--precisely those perceptions that men, because of their 
       dominant position could not perceive--the total vision of human 
       possibilities enlarges and is transformed.
         -- Jean Baker Miller, "Toward a New Psychology of Women" (1976)



[1] If you are unfamiliar with the facts about hemp, the world's premier 
    renewable natural resource, a great place to start is Jack Herer's 
    information-compressed, "Hemp and the Marijuana Conspiracy:  The 
    Emperor Wears No Clothes," (c) 1985, 1986, 1990, 1991, 1992, available 
    in many bookstores, or from H.E.M.P., 5632 Van Nuys Blvd., Suite 210, 
    Van Nuys, CA  91401.  From the Introduction:
      The purpose of this book is to revive the authoritative historical,
    social and economic perspective needed to ensure comprehensive legal
    reforms, abolish cannabis hemp/marijuana prohibition laws, and save 
    the Earth's life systems.
    Another book going to press at this time is "Hemp:  Lifeline To The
    Future, Unexpected Answers To Our Environment And Economic Crises,"
    written by Chris Conrad, the founder and international director of
    BACH, the Business Alliance for Commerce in Hemp, Box 71093, LA, CA 
    90071-0093, 213/288-4152.

[2]  "About 6% of contiguous United States land area put into cultivation 
      for biomass could supply all current demands for oil and gas."

    Very few people know what "biomass conversion" or "pyrolysis" mean--not
    only in terms of their dictionary definitions, but in terms of what 
    they mean as alternative sources of energy, to the limited, expensive 
    and dirty petro-chemical, nuclear, or coal sources.  The only reason 
    the U.S.--and every other nation on earth--can't once again become 
    energy independent and smog free is because people are not educated 
    concerning the facts about solutions to the environment/energy "crises"
    continuously lamented and tepidly addressed "leaders," claiming they 
    are the best informed to decide what to do.  The knowledge exists right
    now for our lifeline to the future and the health and well-being of the
    Seventh Generation yet unborn.  Everyone of us must learn about this 
    existent lifeline and teach everyone else we know what the facts are 
    for THE way out of the current "crisis".

                                 HEMP FOR FUEL
          Excerpted from "Energy Farming in America," by Lynn Osburn

        BIOMASS CONVERSION to fuel has proven economically feasible, first
     in laboratory tests and by continuous operation of pilot plants in
     field tests since 1973.  When the energy crop is growing it takes in
     C02 from the air, so when it is burned the C02 is released, creating
     a balanced system.
        Biomass is the term used to describe all biologically produced
     matter.  World production of biomass is estimated at 146 billion
     metric tons a year, mostly wild plant growth.  Some farm crops and
     trees can produce up to 20 metric tons per acre of biomass a year.
     Types of algae and grasses may produce 50 metric tons per year.
        This biomass has a heating value of 5000-8000 BTU/lb, with
     virtually no ash or sulfur produced during combustion.  About 6% of
     contiguous United States land area put into cultivation for biomass
     could supply all current demands for oil and gas.
        The foundation upon which this will be achieved is the emerging
     concept of "energy farming," wherein farmers grow and harvest crops
     for biomass conversion to fuels.

        PYROLYSIS IS THE TECHNIQUE of applying high heat to organic matter
     (ligno-cellulosic materials) in the absence of air or in reduced air.
     The process can produce charcoal, condensable organic liquids
     (pyrolytic fuel oil), non-condensable gasses, acetic acid, acetone,
     and methanol.  The process can be adjusted to favor charcoal,
     pyrolytic oil, gas, or methanol production with a 95.5% fuel-to-feed
        Pyrolysis has been used since the dawn of civilization.  Ancient
     Egyptians practiced wood distillation by collecting the tars and
     pyroligneous acid for use in their embalming industry.
        Methanol-powered automobiles and reduced emissions from coal-fired
     power plants can be accomplished by biomass conversion to fuel
     utilizing pyrolysis technology, and at the same time save the
     American family farm while turning the American heartland into a
     prosperous source of clean energy production.
        Pyrolysis has the advantage of using the same technology now used
     to process crude fossil fuel oil and coal.  Coal and oil conversion
     is more efficient in terms of fuel-to-feed ratio, but biomass
     conversion by pyrolysis has many environmental and economic
     advantages over coal and oil.
        Pyrolysis facilities will run three shifts a day.  Some 68% of the
     energy of the raw biomass will be contained in the charcoal and fuel
     oils made at the facility.  This charcoal has nearly the same heating
     value in BTU as coal, with virtually no sulfur.
        Pyrolytic fuel oil has similar properties to no. 2 and no. 6 fuel
     oil.  The charcoal can be transported economically by rail to all
     urban area power plants generating electricity.  The fuel oil can be
     transported economically by trucking creating more jobs for
     Americans.  When these plants use charcoal instead of coal, the
     problems of acid rain will begin to disappear.
        When this energy system is on line producing a steady supply of
     fuel for electrical power plants, it will be more feasible to build
     the complex gasifying systems to produce methanol from the cubed
     biomass, or make synthetic gasoline from the methanol by the addition
     of the Mobil Co. process equipment to the gasifier.

        FARMERS MUST BE ALLOWED TO GROW an energy crop capable of
     producing 10 tons per acre in 90-120 days.  This crop must be woody
     in nature and high in lignocellulose.  It must be able to grow in all
     climactic zones in America.
        And it should not compete with food crops for the most productive
     land, but be grown in rotation with food crops or on marginal land
     where food crop production isn't profitable.
        When farmers can make a profit growing energy, it will not take
     long to get 6% of continental American land mass into cultivation of
     biomass fuel--enough to replace our economy's dependence on fossil
     fuels.  We will no longer be increasing the C02 burden in the
     atmosphere.  The threat of global greenhouse warming and adverse
     climactic change will diminish.
        To keep costs down, pyrolysis reactors need to be located within a
     50 mile radius of the energy farms.  This necessity will bring life
     back to our small towns by providing jobs locally.

        HEMP IS THE NUMBER ONE biomass producer on planet earth:  10 tons
     per acre in approximately four months.  It is a woody plant
     containing 77% cellulose.  Wood produces 60% cellulose.
        This energy crop can be harvested with equipment readily
     available.  It can be "cubed" by modifying hay cubing equipment.
     This method condenses the bulk, reducing trucking costs from the
     field to the pyrolysis reactor.  And the biomass cubes are ready for
     conversion with no further treatment.
        Hemp is drought resistant, making it an ideal crop in the dry
     western regions of the country.  Hemp is the only biomass resource
     capable of making America energy independent.  And our government
     outlawed it in 1938.
        Remember, in 10 years, by the year 2000, America will have
     exhausted 80% of her petroleum reserves.  Will we then go to war with
     the Arabs for the privilege of driving our cars;  will we stripmine
     our land for coal, and poison our air so we can drive our autos an
     extra 100 years;  will we raze our forests for our energy needs?
        During World War II, our supply of hemp was cut off by the
     Japanese.  The federal government responded to the emergency by
     suspending marijuana prohibition.  Patriotic American farmers were
     encouraged to apply for a license to cultivate hemp and responded
     enthusiastically.  Hundreds of thousands of acres of hemp were grown.
        The argument against hemp production does not hold up to scrutiny:
     hemp grown for biomass makes very poor grade marijuana.  The 20 to 40
     million Americans who smoke marijuana would loath to smoke hemp grown
     for biomass, so a farmer's hemp biomass crop is worthless as
        It is time the government once again respond to our economic
     emergency as they did in WWII to permit our farmers to grow American
     hemp so this mighty nation can once again become energy independent
     and smog free.
        For more information on the many uses of hemp, contact BACH, the
     Business Alliance for Commerce in Hemp, Box 71093, LA, CA 90071-0093,
     --excerpt from Herer, "Emperor Wears No Clothes," 1991 edition, p. 136
     For an updated version of "Energy Farming In America," "Books In Print"
     lists "Ecohemp:  Economy and Ecolgy with Hemp," Access Unlimited,
     Frazier Park, CA, 805/632-2644.

[3] The device invented was named the decorticator and in the mid 1930s it 
    was poised to do for hemp what the cotton gin had done for cotton:  
    create a fast and economically feasible way of "removing the fiber-
    bearing cortex from the rest of the stalk, making hemp fiber available 
    for use without a prohibitive amount of human labor."  ("Popular 
    Mechanics," February, 1938)

[4] from "The Emperor Wears No Clothes," p. 23:

                             MAN-MADE FIBER . . .

      The late 1920s and 1930s saw continuing consolidation of power into
    the hands of a few large steel, oil and chemical (munitions) companies.
    The U.S. federal government placed much of the textile production for
    the domestic economy in the hands of their chief munitions maker,
      The processing of nitrating cellulose into explosives is very similar
    to the process for nitrating cellulose into synthetic fibers and
    plastics.  Rayon, the first synthetic fiber, is simply stabilized
    guncotton, or nitrated cloth, the basic explosive of the 19th century.
      "Synthetic plastics find application in fabricating a wide variety of
    articles, many of which in the past were made from natural products,"
    beamed Lammot DuPont ("Popular Mechanics," June 1939, pg. 805).
      "Consider our natural resources," the president of DuPont continued,
    "The chemist has aided in conserving natural resources by developing
    synthetic products to supplement or wholly replace natural products."
      DuPont's scientists were the world's leading researchers into the
    processes of nitrating cellulose and were in fact the largest processor
    of cellulose in the nation in this era.
      The February, 1938 "Popular Mechanics" article stated "Thousands of
    tons of hemp hurds are used every year by one large powder company for
    the manufacture of dynamite and TNT."  History shows that DuPont had
    largely cornered the market in explosives by buying up and
    consolidating the smaller blasting companies in the late 1800s.  By
    1902 they controlled about two-thirds of industry output.
      They were the largest powder company, supplying 40% of the munitions
    for the allies in WWI.  As cellulose and fiber researchers, DuPont's
    chemists knew hemp's true value better than anyone else.  The value of
    hemp goes far beyond line fibers;  although recognized for linen,
    canvas, netting and cordage, these long fibers are only 20% of the
    hempstalks' weight.  80% of the hemp is in the 77% cellulose hurd, and
    this was the most abundant, cleanest resource of cellulose (fiber) for
    paper, plastics and even rayon.
      The empirical evidence in this book shows that the federal
    government--through the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act--allowed this munitions
    maker to supply synthetic fibers for the domestic economy without
    competition. The proof of a successful conspiracy among these corporate
    and governing interests is simply this:  In 1991 DuPont was still the
    largest producer of man-made fibers, while no citizen has legally
    harvested a single acre of textile grade hemp in over 50 years.
      An almost unlimited tonnage of natural fiber and cellulose would have
    become available to the American farmer in 1937, the year DuPont
    patented nylon and the polluting wood-pulp paper sulfide process.  All
    of hemp's potential value was lost.
      Simple plastics of the early 1900s were made of nitrated cellulose,
    directly related to DuPont's munitions-making processes.  Celluloid,
    acetate and rayon were the simple plastics of that era, and hemp was
    well known to cellulose researchers as the premier resource for this
    new industry to use.  Worldwide, the raw material of simple plastics,
    rayon and paper could be best supplied by hemp hurds.
      Nylon fibers were developed between 1926-1936 by the noted Harvard
    chemist Wallace Carothers, working from German patents.  These
    polyamides are long fibers based on observed natural products.
    Carothers, supplied with an open-ended research grant from DuPont, made
    a comprehensive study of natural cellulose fibers.  He duplicated
    natural fibers in his labs and polyamides--long fibers of a specific
    chemical process--were developed.
      Coal tar and petroleum based chemicals were employed, and different
    devices, spinnerets and processes were patented.  This new type of
    textile, nylon, was to be controlled from the raw material stage, as
    coal, to the completed product;  a patented chemical product.  The
    chemical company centralized the production and profits of the new
    "miracle" fiber.
      The introduction of nylon, the introduction of high-volume machinery
    to separate hemp's long fiber from the cellulose hurd, and the
    outlawing of hemp as "marijuana" all occurred simultaneously.
      The new man-made fibers (MMFs) can best be described as war material.
    The fiber making process has become one based on big factories,
    smokestacks, coolants and hazardous chemicals, rather than one of
    stripping out the abundant, naturally available fibers.
      Coming from a history of making explosives and munitions, the old
    "chemical dye plants" now produce hosiery, mock linens, mock canvas,
    latex paint and synthetic carpets.  Their polluting factories make
    imitation leather, upholstery and wood surfaces, while an important
    part of the natural cycle stands outlawed.
      The standard fiber of world history, America's traditional crop,
    hemp, could provide our textiles, paper and be the premier source for
    cellulose.  The war industries--DuPont, Allied Chemical, Monsanto,
    etc.,--are protected from competition by the marijuana laws.  They make
    war on the natural cycle and the common farmer.
                                                           Shan Clark
    "Encyclopedia of Textiles" 3rd Edition by the editors of "American
    Fabrics and Fashions Magazine," William C. Legal, Publisher Prentice-
    Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1980;  "The Emergence of Industrial
    America Strategic Factors in American Economic Growth Since 1870,"
    Peter George, State University, NY;  "DuPont" (a corporate
    autobiography published periodically by E.I. DuPont De Nemours and Co.,
    Inc. Wilmington, DE);  "The Blasting Handbook," E.I. DuPont De Nemours
    & Co. Inc., Wilmington, DE;  "Mechanical Engineering Magazine," Feb.
    1938;  "Popular Mechanics," Feb. 1938;  "Journal of Applied Polymer
    Science," Vol. 47, 1984;  "Polyamides, the Chemistry of Long Molecules"
    (author unknown) U.S. Patent #2,071,250 (Feb. 16, 1937), W.H.
    Carothers;  "DuPont Dynasties," Jerry Colby;  "The American Peoples
    Encyclopedia," the Sponsor Press, Chicago, 1953.

[5] Dewey and Merrill, "Bulletin #404, Hemp Hurds As Paper-Making 
    Material," U.S.D.A., Washington, D.C., October 14, 1916.

    from the prophetic "Conclusions" section of this USDA Bulletin:
      There appears to be little doubt that under the present system of 
    forest use and consumption the present supply cannot withstand the 
    demands placed upon it.  By the time improved methods of forestry have 
    established an equilibrium between production and consumption, the 
    price of pulp wood may be such that a knowledge of other available raw 
    materials may be imperative.
      Semicommercial paper-making tests were conducted, therefore, on hemp
    hurds, in cooperation with a paper manufacturer.  After several trials,
    under conditions of treatment and manufacture which are regarded as 
    favorable in comparison with those used with pulp wood, paper was
    produced which received very favorable comment both from investigators
    and from the trade which according to official test would be classed as
    a No. 1 machine finished printing paper. (p. 25)

       "This remarkable new pulp technology for papermaking was invented in
     1916 by our own U.S. Department of Agriculture chief scientists, 
     Lyster H. Dewey, Botanist in Charge of Fiber-Plant Investigations, and
     Jason L. Merrill, Paper-Plant Chemist, Paper-Plant Investigations.
        As the USDA bulletin suggested, this process had to stay in the 
     laboratory until the invention of decorticating and havesting 
     machinery allowed for its economic utilization.
        Until this time, hemp paper had only been made from rags and stalk
     fibers while the fiber and cellulose-rich hurds were burnt to 
     fertilize the soil.
        Some cannabis plant strains regularly reach tree-like heights of 20
     feet or more in one growing season.
        The new paper process used hemp "hurds"--77% of the hemp stalk's 
     weight, which was then a wasted by-product of the fiber-stripping 
     process.  In 1916, USDA Bulletin No. 404, reported that one acre of
     cannabis hemp, in annual rotation over a 20-year period, would produce
     as much pulp for paper as 4.1 acres of trees being cut down over the 
     same 20-year period.  This process would use only 1/4 to 1/7 as much 
     polluting sulfur-based acid chemicals to break down the glue-like
     lignin that binds the fibers of the pulp, or even none at all using
     soda ash.  The problem of dioxin contamination of rivers is avoided in
     the hemp paper making process, which does not need to use chlorine
     bleach (as the wood pulp paper making process requires) but instead
     safely substitutes hydrogen peroxide in the bleaching process.
        All this lignin must be broken down to make pulp paper.  Hemp pulp 
     is only 4% lignin, while trees are 18-30% lignin.  Thus hemp provides 
     four times as much pulp with at least four to seven times less 
     pollution. . . .
        As we have seen, this hemp pulp-paper potential depended on the 
     invention and the engineering of new machines for stripping the hemp 
     by modern technology.  This would also lower demand for lumber and 
     reduce the cost of housing, while at the same time helping 
     re-oxygenate the planet.
       As an example:  If the new (1916) hemp pulp paper process were legal
     today, it would soon replace about 70% of all wood pulp paper, 
     including computer printout paper, corrugated boxes and paper bags."
       -- Herer, "The Emperor Wears No Clothes", 1991 edition, pp. 20-22, 

[6] complete text below of "New Billion-Dollar Crop," "Popular Mechanics,"
    Febraury, 1938, followed by "Pinch Hitters for Defense" (12/41) 
    describing Henry Ford's new auto bodies consisting entirely of plastics
    made from vegetables producing cellulose fibers (of which hemp is the 
    most efficient of all vegetables), followed by an two excerpts from 
    "The Emperor" about "Paints and Varnishes" and "Building Materials and 

                            NEW BILLION-DOLLAR CROP
                               Popular Mechanics
                                February, 1938

     AMERICAN farmers are promised a new cash crop with an annual value of
     several hundred million dollars, all because a machine has been
     invented which solves a problem more than 6,000 years old.  It is
     hemp, a crop that will not compete with other American products.
     Instead, it will displace imports of raw material and manufactured
     products produced by underpaid coolie and peasant labor and it will
     provide thousands of jobs for American workers throughout the land.
        The machine which makes this possible is designed for removing the
     fiber-bearing cortex from the rest of the stalk, making hemp fiber
     available for use without a prohibitive amount of human labor.
        Hemp is the standard fiber of the world.  It has great tensile
     strength and durability.  It is used to produce more than 5,000
     textile products, ranging from rope to fine laces, and the woody
     "hurds" remaining after the fiber has been removed contain more than
     seventy-seven per cent cellulose, and can be used to produce more
     than 25,000 products, ranging from dynamite to Cellophane.
        Machines now in service in Texas, Illinois, Minnesota and other
     states are producing fiber at a manufacturing cost of half a cent a
     pound, and are finding a profitable market for the rest of the stalk.
     Machine operators are making a good profit in competition with
     coolie-produced foreign fiber while paying farmers fifteen dollars a
     ton for hemp as it comes from the field.
        From the farmers' point of view, hemp is an easy crop to grow and
     will yield from three to six tons per acre on any land that will grow
     corn, wheat, or oats.  It has a short growing season, so that it can
     be planted after other crops are in.  It can be grown in any state of
     the union.  The long roots penetrate and break the soil to leave it
     in perfect condition for the next year's crop.  The dense shock of
     leaves, eight to twelve feet above the ground, chokes out weeds.  Two
     successive crops are enough to reclaim land that has been abandoned
     because of Canadian thistles or quack grass.
        Under old methods, hemp was cut and allowed to lie in the fields
     for weeks until it "retted" enough so the fibers could be pulled off
     by hand.  Retting is simply rotting as a result of dew, rain and
     bacterial action.  Machines were developed to separate the fibers
     mechanically after retting was complete, but the cost was high, the
     loss of fiber great, and the quality of fiber comparatively low.
     With the new machine, known as a decorticator, hemp is cut with a
     slightly modified grain binder.  It is delivered to the machine where
     an automatic chain conveyor feeds it to the breaking arms at the rate
     of two or three tons per hour.  The hurds are broken into fine pieces
     which drop into the hopper, from where they are delivered by blower
     to a baler or to truck or freight car for loose shipment.  The fiber
     comes from the other end of the machine, ready for baling.
        From this point on almost anything can happen.  The raw fiber can
     be used to produce strong twine or rope, woven into burlap, used for
     carpet warp or linoleum backing or it may be bleached and refined,
     with resinous by-products of high commercial value.  It can, in fact,
     be used to replace the foreign fibers which now flood our markets.
        Thousands of tons of hemp hurds are used every year by one large
     powder company for the manufacture of dynamite and TNT.  A large
     paper company, which has been paying more than a million dollars a
     year in duties on foreign-made cigarette papers, now is manufacturing
     these papers from American hemp grown in Minnesota.  A new factory in
     Illinois is producing fine bond papers from hemp.  The natural
     materials in hemp make it an economical source of pulp for any grade
     of paper manufactured, and the high percentage of alpha cellulose
     promises an unlimited supply of raw material for the thousands of
     cellulose products our chemists have developed.
        It is generally believed that all linen is produced from flax.
     Actually, the majority comes from hemp--authorities estimate that
     more than half of our imported linen fabrics are manufactured from
     hemp fiber.  Another misconception is that burlap is made from hemp.
     Actually, its source is usually jute, and practically all of the
     burlap we use is woven by laborers in India who receive only four
     cents a day.  Binder twine is usually made from sisal which comes
     from Yucatan and East Africa.
        All of these products, now imported, can be produced from home-
     grown hemp.  Fish nets, bow strings, canvas, strong rope, overalls,
     damask tablecloths, fine linen garments, towels, bed linen and
     thousands of other everyday items can be grown on American farms.
     Our imports of foreign fabrics and fibers average about $200,000,000
     per year;  in raw fibers alone we imported over $50,000,000 in the
     first six months of 1937.  All of this income can be made available
     for Americans.
        The paper industry offers even greater possibilities.  As an
     industry it amounts to over $1,000,000,000 a year, and of that eighty
     per cent is imported.  But hemp will produce every grade of paper,
     and government figures estimate that 10,000 acres devoted to hemp
     will produce as much paper as 40,000 acres of average pulp land.
        One obstacle in the onward march of hemp is the reluctance of
     farmers to try new crops.  The problem is complicated by the need for
     proper equipment a reasonable distance from the farm.  The machine
     cannot be operated profitably unless there is enough acreage within
     driving range and farmers cannot find a profitable market unless
     there is machinery to handle the crop.  Another obstacle is that the
     blossom of the female hemp plant contains marijuana, a narcotic, and
     it is impossible to grow hemp without producing the blossom.  Federal
     regulations now being drawn up require registration of hemp growers,
     and tentative proposals for preventing narcotic production are rather
        However, the connection of hemp as a crop and marijuana seems to
     be exaggerated.  The drug is usually produced from wild hemp or
     locoweed which can be found on vacant lots and along railroad tracks
     in every state.  If federal regulations can be drawn to protect the
     public without preventing the legitimate culture of hemp, this new
     crop can add immeasurably to American agriculture and industry.

     "Popular Mechanics Magazine" can furnish the name and address of the
     maker of, or dealer in, any article described in its pages.  If you
     wish this information, write to the Bureau of Information, inclosing
     a stamped, self-addressed envelope.

                               *   *   *   *   *

                           Pinch Hitters for Defense
                               Popular Mechanics
                                December, 1941

     Over in England it's saccharine for sugar;  on the continent it's 
     charcoal "gasogenes" in the rumble seat instead of gasoline in the
     tank.  Here in America there's plenty of sugar, plenty of gasoline.
     Yet there's an industrial revolution in progress just the same, a
     revolution in materials that will affect every home.
        After twelve years of research, the Ford Motor Company has 
     completed an experimental automobile with a plastic body.  Although 
     its design takes advantage of the properties of plastics, the 
     streamline car does not differ greatly in appearance from its steel
     counterpart.  The only steel in the hand-made body is found in the 
     tubular welded frame on which are mounted 14 plastic panels, 3/16 
     inch thick.  Composed of a mixture of farm crops and synthetic
     chemicals, the plastic is reported to withstand a blow 10 times as
     great as steel without denting.  Even the windows and windshield are
     of plastic.  The total weight of the plastic car is about 2,000 
     pounds, compared with 3,000 pounds for a steel automobile of the same
     size.  Although no hint has been given as to when plastic cars may go
     into production, the experimental model is pictured as a step toward
     materialization of Henry Ford's belief that some day he would "grow
     automobiles from the soil."
       When Henry Ford recently unveiled his plastic car, result of 12 
     years of research, he gave the world a glimpse of the automobilie of
     tomorrow, its tough panels molded under hydraulic pressure of 1,500
     pounds per square inch from a recipe that calls for 70 percent of
     cellulose fibers from wheat straw, hemp and sisal plus 30 percent
     resin binder.  The only steel in the car is its tubular welded frame.
     The plastic car weighs a ton, 1,000 pounds lighter than a comparable
     steel car.  Manufacturers are already taking a low-priced plastic car
     to test the public's taste by 1943.

                               *   *   *   *   *

                           6.  Paints and Varnishes 

       For thousands of years, virtually all good paints and varnishes 
     were made with hemp seed oil and/or linseed oil.
       For instance, in 1935 alone, 116 million pounds (58,000 tons)
     [National Institute of Oilseed Products congressional testimony 
     *against* the 1937 Marijuana Transfer Tax Law] of hemp seed were 
     used in America just for paint and varnish.  As a comparison, consider
     that the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), along with all America's 
     state and local police agencies, claim to have seized for all of 1988,
     651.5 tons of American-grown marijuana--seed, plant, root, dirt clump 
     and all.[National Narcotics Intelligence Consumer's Committee, NNICC 
     Report, 1988 DEA office relase, El Paso, TX, April, 1989.]  The hemp 
     drying oil business went principally to DuPont petro-chemicals.
     [Sloman, Larry, "Reefer Madness," Grove Press, New York, NY, 1979, 
     pg. 72.]
       Congress and the Treasury Department were assured through secret
     testimony given by DuPont in 1935-37 directly to Herman Oliphant, 
     Chief Counsel for the Treasury Dept., that hemp seed oil could be
     replaced with synthetic petro-chemical oils made principally by 
       Oliphant was solely responsible for drafting the Marijuana Tax Act
     that was submitted to Congress.[Bonnie, Richard and Whitebread, 
     Charles, "The Marijuana Conviction," Univ. of Virginia Press, 1974.]  
     (See complete story in Chapter 4, "The Last Days of Legal Cannabis.")
        -- Herer, "The Emperor Wears No Clothes," 1991 edition, p. 8. 

                               *   *   *   *   *

                      11. Building Materials And Housing

       Because one acre of hemp produces as much cellulose fiber pulp as 
     4.1 acres of trees (Dewey & Merrill, "Bulletin #404," U.S. Dept. of 
     Ag., 1916), hemp is the perfect material to replace trees for pressed
     board, particle board and cor concrete construction molds.
       Practical, inexpensive construction material which is fire 
     resistant, with excellent thermal and sound insulating qualities, can
     be made using a process called Environcore.(c)  This process, 
     developed by Mansion Industries, applies heat and compression to 
     agricultural fiber to create strong construction paneling, replacing
     dry wall and plywood.  (See Appendix, p. 172. [Vincent H. Miller, "A 
     Grass House In Your Future?," "Freedom Network News," June/July 1989])
       Hemp has been used throughout history for carpet backing.  Hemp 
     fiber has potential in the manufacture of strong, rot resistant 
     carpeting--eliminating the poisonous fumes of burning synthetic 
     materials in a house or commercial fire, along with allergic reactions
     associated with new synthetic carpeting.
       Plastic plumbing pipe (PVC pipes) can be manufactured using 
     renewable hemp cellulose as the chemical feedstocks, replacing non-
     renewable petroleum-based chemical feedstocks.
       So we can envision a house of the future built, plumbed, painted and
     furnished with the world's num,ber one renewable resource--hemp.
        -- Herer, "The Emperor Wears No Clothes," 1991 edition, p. 10. 

[7] Most people think with the Cold War over, nuclear weapons, and, the 
    nuclear industry as a whole, will simply become a thing of the past.
    This is NOT the perspective of the people who run the nuclear weapons 
    labs--the heart of the nuclear industry.  DOE plans for creating an 
    "assembly line" for international commerce in enriched uranium for
    foreign atomic power plants are swinging into high gear at the same 
    time the justification for the existence of the nuclear establishment 
    over the past 50 years--communism--is no more.  
      The following Fact Sheet by the Western States Legal Foundation is 
    only one indicator of what the DOE and the Nuclear Weapons Complex 
    intend to do to create a "thriving" international commerce in enriched
    high-level radioactive materials, the most long-lived biologically 
    toxic matter existent on earth.  And, as has consistently happened 
    throughout the history of the development of nuclear technology in the 
    United States, all this is being done in secret without ANY meaningful 
    public debate.  Who's interests are truly being served here?
      Teaching all people in the industrial nations how hemp IS our 
    lifeline to the future--how it IS the renewable, cheap, and clean 
    vegetable source to meet humanity's energy needs instead of the 
    astronomically expensive and lethally polluting source that nuclear 
    technology is--this is what we must be about.
      And when people respond by saying, "Yes, but what are you going to 
    use if we don't further develop and employ nuclear?--Petroleum and coal
    are too dirty and solar isn't technologically feasible yet."  That's 
    when you respond by explaining why alcohol prohibition of the 1920s was
    rescinded by FDR in the 30s, why hemp prohibition must be rescinded 
    now, and how hemp is THE world's premier renewable natural resource 
    that is only waiting for us to re-exercise our own best intelligence to
    employ it to solve our energy "crisis".

                       WESTERN STATES LEGAL FOUNDATI0N
            1440 BROADWAY, SUITE #500, OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA 94612
                 PHONE: 510/839-5877      FAX:  510/839-5397



    This factsheet is prepared by the Western States Legal Foundation
    (WSLF), a non-profit environmental and peace organization which has
    actively monitored Department of Energy (DOE) operations at Lawrence
    Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) since 1982.  WSLF, in association
    with other public interest organizations, is evaluating DOE's proposal
    to commence commercial-scale demonstration of a uranium-enrichment
    facility known as U-AVLIS.  DOE recently announced that U-AVLIS
    operations pose "no significant environmental impact" to the
    surrounding community.

    What Is U-AVLIS?

         Over the past sixteen years, DOE has conducted research into the
    expansion of commercial production of enriched uranium for export and
    use in foreign atomic power plants.  Alarmed by increasing competition
    in the uranium export market by France and Japan (and possible entry
    into the market by the Soviet Union), DOE has invested hundreds of
    millions of dollars to develop a new technology to enrich fuel-grade
    uranium.  The objective of the commercial AVLIS program is to generate
    a market capable of contributing over one billion dollars to the U.S.
    balance of trade.

         AVLIS, which stands for Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation, is
    a technology capable of enriching uranium and plutonium for weapons use
    as well as for nuclear fuel.  LLNL recently operated a pilot Special
    Isotope Separation (SIS) facility designed to vaporize and refine
    plutonium (for weapons use), utilizing AVLIS technology.  U-AVLIS is
    the commercial counterpart to the weapons-related SIS program.

         In the U-AVLIS facility, uranium is vaporized and ionized with
    high energy lasers.  The desirable U-235 isotope is then collected in
    the separator, and the remaining U-238 ("depleted uranium") is
    discarded.  In 1991, DOE completed construction of the Uranium
    Demonstration system (UDS), a plant-scale pilot U-AVLIS facility for
    demonstration of "large scale, integrated uranium enrichment."  Should
    the program prove successful, DOE plans to start full scale plant
    construction in 1993 and production by 1997.

    What Are The Possible Environmental Impacts from U-AVLIS?

         The United States still has no effective long-term solution to the
    disposal of radioactive waste associated with nuclear power plants.
    The end product of AVLIS' vast subsidy to the nuclear power industry is
    thousands of tons of more radioactive waste, with nowhere to go.  The
    problem of nuclear waste disposal is even more acute in foreign nations
    which are to be the primary end-user of AVLIS-produced enriched

         According to DOE's recent environmental assessment for the U-AVLIS
    demonstration project, the U-AVLIS facility will annually generate up
    to 40,000 kilograms of solid radioactive waste, 20,000 liters of liquid
    radioactive waste, and 60,000 liters of mixed liquid radioactive and
    non-radioactive hazardous waste.  U-AVLIS will *triple* the amount of
    liquid radioactive waste produced at LLNL, and will account for roughly
    one out of three barrels of "mixed" waste to accumulate at LLNL without
    any effective means at disposal.  U-AVLIS itself is anticipated to use
    thousands of gallons of hazardous laser dye solutions, and process
    thousands of kilograms of uranium.  The maximum capacity of molten
    uranium in U-AVLIS is 600 kilograms, and some 5000 kilograms will be
    stored in the facility at any one time.  Transportation of uranium in
    and out of LLNL is conservatively estimated to quadruple during U-AVLIS

         LLNL is listed on the National Priorities List as a Superfund site
    based on serious groundwater contamination.  Throughout its operation,
    LLNL has had a documented record of releasing radioactive and hazardous
    materials into the air, water and soil.  The Department of Health
    Services has repeatedly cited LLNL for numerous violations of hazardous
    waste laws.  The state of Nevada has threatened to return thousands of
    barrels of waste illegally shipped for storage to the Nevada Test site.
    In 1990, an internal DOE investigation (the "Tiger Team") pinpointed
    numerous failures of management to effectively handle the serious
    hazardous waste problems associated with LLNL operations.  U-AVLIS
    presents its own special risks of accidents, including accidental
    spillage of laser dyes, and spontaneous combustion of molten uranium,
    in close proximity to the Livermore population of 56,000 and a greater
    Bay Area population of 5 million.

    Proliferation Risks

         WSLF believes that the planned export of thousands of pounds of
    enriched uranium will encourage the proliferation not only of risky
    atomic power technology, but nuclear weapons as well.  The United
    States, in concert with the AVLIS program, is actively encouraging the
    market for enriched uranium through "safe" atomic power programs
    abroad.  AVLIS itself is also subject to copying by other nations,
    where it can be used to develop plutonium or uranium based bombs.

    What Environmental Review Has Been Done?

         Almost none.  DOE has prepared three brief "environmental
    assessments" under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for the
    U-AVLIS program.  The two earlier assessments are "classified" and not
    available to the public.  In May 1991, DOE released a cursory
    assessment for the demonstration phase of the U-AVLIS, concluding that
    the project was without significant environmental impacts.  No public
    hearing has ever been held concerning U-AVLIS.  DOE's current position
    is that it need not prepare a full environmental impact statement (EIS)
    or conduct a public hearing until it is ready to "deploy U-AVLIS on a
    commercial scale."  WSLF demands that DOE prepare a full environmental
    impact statement and hold public hearings on the environmental risks
    associated with U-AVLIS.

[8] Transcript of the original 1942 United States Department of Agriculture
    Film, "Hemp for Victory" extolling some of the many uses of this 
    ancient plant and premier world resource:

                               HEMP FOR VICTORY
                                  -- 1942 --
                   Reprinted from "High Times," October 1989

      Long ago when these ancient Grecian temples were new, hemp was
    already old in the service of mankind.  For thousands of years, even
    then, this plant had been grown for cordage and cloth in China and
    elsewhere in the East.  For centuries prior to about 1850 all the ships
    that sailed the western seas were rigged with hempen rope and sails.
    For the sailor, no less than the hangman, hemp was indispensable.
      A 44-gun frigate like our cherished Old Ironsides took over 60 tons
    of hemp for rigging, including an anchor cable 25 inches in
    circumference.  The Conestoga wagons and prairie schooners of pioneer
    days were covered with hemp canvas.  Indeed the very word canvas comes
    from the Arabic word for hemp.  In those days hemp was an important
    crop in Kentucky and Missouri.  Then came cheaper imported fibers for
    cordage, like jute, sisal and Manila hemp, and the culture of hemp in
    America declined.
      But now with Philippine and East Indian sources of hemp in the hands
    of the Japanese, and shipment of jute from India curtailed, American
    hemp must meet the needs of our Army and Navy as well as of our
    Industry.  In 1942, patriotic farmers at the government's request
    planted 36,000 acres of seed hemp, an increase of several thousand
    percent.  The goal for 1943 is 50,000 acres of seed hemp.
      In Kentucky much of the seed hemp acreage is on river bottom land
    such as this.  Some of these fields are inaccessible except by boat.
    Thus plans are afoot for a great expansion of a hemp industry as a part
    of the war program.  This film is designed to tell farmers how to
    handle this ancient crop now little known outside Kentucky and
      This is hemp seed.  Be careful how you use it.  For to grow hemp
    legally you must have a federal registration and tax stamp.  This is
    provided for in your contract.  Ask your county agent about it.  Don't
      Hemp demands a rich, well-drained soil such as is found here in the
    Blue Grass region of Kentucky or in central Wisconsin.  It must be
    loose and rich in organic matter.  Poor soils won't do.  Soil that will
    grow good corn will usually grow hemp.
      Hemp is not hard on the soil.  In Kentucky it has been grown for
    several years on the same ground, though this practice is not
    recommended.  A dense and shady crop, hemp tends to choke out weeds.
    Here's a Canada thistle that couldn't stand the competition, dead as a
    dodo.  Thus hemp leaves the ground in good condition for the following
      For fiber, hemp should be sewn closely, the closer the rows, the
    better.  These rows are spaced about four inches.  This hemp has been
    broadcast.  Either way it should be sewn thick enough to grow a slender
    stalk.  Here's an ideal stand:  the right height to be harvested
    easily, thick enough to grow slender stalks that are easy to cut and
      Stalks like these here on the left wield the most fiber and the best.
    Those on the right are too coarse and woody.  For seed, hemp is planted
    in hills like corn.  Sometimes by hand.  Hemp is a dioecious plant.
    The female flower is inconspicuous.  But the male flower is easily
    spotted.  In seed production after the pollen has been shed, these male
    plants are cut out.  These are the seeds on a female plant.
      Hemp for fiber is ready to harvest when the pollen is shedding and
    the leaves are falling.  In Kentucky, hemp harvest comes in August.
    Here the old standby has been the self-rake reaper, which has been used
    for a generation or more.
      Hemp grows so luxuriantly in Kentucky that harvesting is sometimes
    difficult, which may account for the popularity of the self-rake with
    its lateral stroke.  A modified rice binder has been used to some
    extent.  This machine works well on average hemp.  Recently, the
    improved hemp harvester, used for many years in Wisconsin, has been
    introduced in Kentucky.  This machine spreads the hemp in a continuous
    swath.  It is a far cry from this fast and efficient modern harvester,
    that doesn't stall in the heaviest hemp.
      In Kentucky, hand cutting is practicing in opening fields for the
    machine.  In Kentucky, hemp is shucked as soon as safe, after cutting,
    to be spread out for retting later in the fall.
      In Wisconsin, hemp is harvested in September.  Here the hemp
    harvester with automatic spreader is standard equipment.  Note how
    smoothly the rotating apron lays the swaths preparatory to retting.
    Here it is a common and essential practice to leave headlands around
    hemp fields.  These strips may be planted with other crops, preferably
    small grain.  Thus the harvester has room to make its first round
    without preparatory hand cutting.  The other machine is running over
    corn stubble.  When the cutter bar is much shorter than the hemp is
    tall, overlapping occurs.  Not so good for retting.  The standard cut
    is eight to nine feet.
      The length of time hemp is left on the ground to ret depends on the
    weather.  The swaths must be turned to get a uniform ret.  When the
    woody core breaks away readily like this, the hemp is about ready to
    pick up and bind into bundles.  Well-retted hemp is light to dark grey.
    The fiber tends to pull away from the stalks.  The presence of stalks
    in the bough-string stage indicates that retting is well underway.
    When hemp is short or tangled or when the ground is too wet for
    machines, it's bound by hand.  A wooden bucket is used.  Twine will do
    for tying, but the hemp itself makes a good band.
      When conditions are favorable, the pickup binder is commonly used.
    The swaths should lie smooth and even with the stalks parallel.  The
    picker won't work well in tangled hemp.  After binding, hemp is shucked
    as soon as possible to stop further retting.  In 1942, 14,000 acres of
    fiber hemp were harvested in the United States.  The goal for the old
    standby cordage fiber, is staging a strong comeback.
      This is Kentucky hemp going into the dryer over mill at Versailles.
    In the old days braking was done by hand.  One of the hardest jobs
    known to man.  Now the power braker makes quick work of it.
      Spinning American hemp into rope yarn or twine in the old Kentucky
    river mill at Frankfort, Kentucky.  Another pioneer plant that has been
    making cordage for more than a century.  All such plants will presently
    be turning out products spun from American-grown hemp:  twine of
    various kinds for tying and upholster's work;  rope for marine rigging
    and towing;  for hay forks, derricks, and heavy duty tackle;  light
    duty firehose;  thread for shoes for millions of American soldiers;
    and parachute webbing for our paratroopers.
      As for the United States Navy, every battleship requires 34,000 feet
    of rope.  Here in the Boston Navy Yard, where cables for frigates were
    made long ago, crews are now working night and day making cordage for
    the fleet.  In the old days rope yarn was spun by hand.  The rope yarn
    feeds through holes in an iron plate.  This is Manila hemp from the
    Navy's rapidly dwindling reserves.  When it is gone,  American hemp
    will go on duty again:  hemp for mooring ships;  hemp for tow lines;
    hemp for tackle and gear;  hemp for countless naval uses both on ship
    and shore.  Just as in the days when Old Ironsides sailed the seas
    victorious with her hempen shrouds and hempen sails.  Hemp for victory.

[9] Introduction from "Marijuana:  Medical Papers," Tod H. Mikuriya, M.D.,
    Medi-Comp Press, 1973, pp. xiii-xxvii, describing some of the recent
    history of western medical explorations into the salutory medicinal
    benefits of hemp drugs--a history that is almost completely unknown to
    people at the end of the 20th century, but, throughout the majority of
    the 19th century, was commonly known and experienced by much of the


    Medicine in the Western World has forgotten almost all it once knew
    about therapeutic properties of marijuana, or cannabis.
      Analgesia, anticonvulsant action, appetite stimulation, ataraxia,
    antibiotic properties and low toxicity were described throughout
    medical literature, beginning in 1839, when O'Shaughnessy introduced
    cannabis into the Western pharmacopoeia.
      As these findings were reported throughout Western medicine, cannabis
    attained wide use.  Cannabis therapy was described in most
    pharmacopoeial texts as a treatment for a variety of disease
      During the second half of the 1800s and in the present century,
    medical researchers in some measure corroborated the early reports of
    the therapeutic potential of cannabis.  In addition, much laboratory
    research has been concerned with bioassay, determination of the mode of
    action, and attempts to solve the problems of insolubility in water and
    variability of strength among different cannabis specimens.
      "Recreational" smoking of cannabis in the twentieth century and the
    resultant restrictive federal legislation have functionally ended all
    medical uses of marijuana.
      In light of such assets as minimal toxicity, no buildup of tolerance,
    no physical dependence, and minimal autonomic disturbance, immediate
    major clinical reinvestigation of cannabis preparations is indicated in
    the management of pain, chronic neurologic diseases, convulsive
    disorders, migraine headache, anorexia, mental illness, and bacterial
      Recently declassified secret U.S. Defense Department studies
    reconfirm marijuana's congeners to have therapeutic utility.
      Cannabis indica, Cannabis sativa, Cannabis americana, Indian hemp and
    marijuana (or marihuana) all refer to the same plant.  Cannabis is used
    throughout the world for diverse purposes and has a long history
    characterized by usefulness, euphoria or evil--depending on one's point
    of view.  To the agriculturist cannabis is a fiber crop;  to the
    physician of a century ago it was a valuable medicine;  to the
    physician of today it is an enigma;  to the user, a euphoriant;  to the
    police, a menace;  to the traffickers, a source of profitable danger;
    to the convict or parolee and his family, a source of sorrow.
      This book is concerned primarily with the medicinal aspects of

      The Chinese emperor Shen-nung is reported to have taught his people
    to grow hemp for fiber in the twenty-eighth century B.C.  A text from
    the period 1500-1200 B.C. documents a knowledge of the plant in China-
    -but not for use as fiber.  In 200 A.D., the use of cannabis as an
    analgesic was described by the physician Hoa-tho.[44]
      In India the use of hemp preparations as a remedy was described
    before 1000 B.C.  In Persia, cannabis was known several centuries
    before Christ.  In Assyria, about 650 B.C., its intoxicating properties
    were noted.[44]
      Except for Herodotus' report that the Scythians used the smoke from
    burning hemp seeds for intoxication, the ancient Greeks seemed to be
    unaware of the psychoactive properties of cannabis.  Dioscorides in the
    first century A.D. rendered an accurate morphologic description of the
    plant, but made no note of intoxicating properties.[10]
      In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, Arabic writers described
    the social use of cannabis and resultant cruel but unsuccessful
    attempts to suppress its non-medical use.[44]
      Although Galen described the use of the seeds for creating warmth, he
    did not describe the intoxicating qualities of hemp.  Of interest is
    the paucity of references to hemp's intoxicating properties in the lay
    and medical literature of Europe before the 1800s.[44]
      The therapeutic use of cannabis was introduced into Western medicine
    in 1839, in a forty-page article by W. B. O'Shaughnessy, a thirty-
    year-old physician serving with the British in India.[27]  His
    discussion of the history of the use of cannabis products in the East
    reveals an awareness that these drugs had not only been used in
    medicine for therapeutic purposes, but had also been used for
    recreational and religious purposes.
      O'Shaughnessy is not primarily known for his discovery of hemp drugs,
    but rather for his basic studies on intravenous electrolyte therapy in
    1831, and his introduction of the telegraph into India in the
      After studying the literature on cannabis and conferring with
    contemporary Hindu and Mohammedan scholars O'Shaughnessy tested the
    effects of various hemp preparations on animals, before attempting to
    use them to treat humans.  Satisfied that the drug was reasonably safe,
    he administered preparations of cannabis extract to patients, and
    discovered that it had analgesic and sedative properties.
    O'Shaughnessy successfully relieved the pain of rheumatism and stilled
    the convulsions of an infant with this strange new drug.  His most
    spectacular success came, however, when he quelled the wrenching muscle
    spasms of tetanus and rabies with the fragrant resin.  Psychic effects
    resembling a curious delirium, when an overdose was given, were treated
    with strong purgatives, emetics with a blister to the nape of the neck,
    and leeches on the temples.[27]
      The use of cannabis derivatives for medicinal purposes spread rapidly
    throughout Western medicine, as is evidenced in the report of the
    Committee on Cannabis Indica of the Ohio State Medical Society,
    published in 1860.  In that report physicians told of success in
    treating stomach pain, childbirth psychosis, chronic cough, and
    gonorrhea with hemp products.[25]  A Dr. Fronmueller, of Fuerth, Ohio,
    summarized his experiences with the drug as follows:

      I have used hemp many hundred times to relieve local pains of an
      inflammatory as well as neuralgic nature, and judging from these
      experiments, I have to assign to the Indian hemp a place among
      the so-called hypnotic medicines next to opium;  its effects are
      less intense, and the secretions are not so much suppressed by
      it.  Digestion is not disturbed;  the appetite rather increased;
      sickness of the stomach seldom induced;  congestion never.  Hemp
      may consequently be employed in inflammatory conditions.  It
      disturbs the expectoration far less than opium;  the nervous
      system is also not so much affected.  The whole effect of hemp
      being less violent, and producing a more natural sleep, without
      interfering with the actions of the internal organs, it is
      certainly often preferable to opium, although it is not equal to
      that drug in strength and reliability.  An alternating course of
      opium and Indian hemp seems particularly adapted to those cases
      where opium alone fails in producing the desired effect.[25]

      Because cannabis did not lead to physical dependence, it was found to
    be superior to the opiates for a number of therapeutic purposes.
    Birch, in 1889, reported success in treating opiate and chloral
    addiction with cannabis,[5] and Mattison in 1891 recommended its use to
    the young physician, comparing it favorably with the opiates.  He
    quoted his colleague Suckling:

          With a wish for speedy effect, it is so easy to use that
      modern mischief-maker, hypodermic morphia, that they [young
      physicians] are prone to forget remote results of incautious
      opiate giving.
          Would that the wisdom which has come to their professional
      fathers through, it may be, a hapless experience, might serve
      them to steer clear of narcotic shoals on which many a patient
      has gone awreck.
          Indian hemp is not here lauded as a specific.  It will, at
      times, fail.  So do other drugs.  But the many cases in which it
      acts well, entitle it to a large and lasting confidence.
          My experience warrants this statement:  cannabis indica is,
      often, a safe and successful anodyne and hypnotic.[23]

      In their study of the medical applications of cannabis, physicians of
    the nineteenth century repeatedly encountered a number of difficulties.
    Recognizing the therapeutic potential of the drug, many experimenters
    sought ways of overcoming these drawbacks to its use in medicine, in
    particular the following:
      Cannabis products are insoluble in water.
      The onset of the effects of medicinal preparations of cannabis takes
    an hour or so;  its action is therefore slower than that of many other
      Different batches of cannabis derivatives vary greatly in strength;
    moreover, the common procedure for standardization of cannabis samples,
    by administration to test animals, is subject to error owing to
    variability of reactions among the animals.
      There is wide variation among humans in their individual responses to
      Despite these problems regarding the uncertainty of potency and
    dosage and the difficulties in mode of administration, cannabis has
    several important advantages over other substances used as analgesics,
    sedatives, and hypnotics:
      The prolonged use of cannabis does not lead to the development of
    physical dependence. [11, 13, 14, 24, 39, 44]
      There is minimal development of tolerance to cannabis products.
    (Loewe notes a slight "beginner's habituation" in dogs, during the
    first few trials with the drug, as the only noticeable tolerance
    effect.[20]) [11, 13, 14, 24, 44]
      Cannabis products have exceedingly low toxicity.[9, 21, 22, 24]  (The
    oral dose required to kill a mouse has been found to be about 40,000
    times the dose required to produce typical symptoms of intoxication in
      Cannabis produces no disturbance of vegetative functioning, whereas
    the opiates inhibit the gastrointestinal tract, the flow of bile and
    the cough reflex.[1, 2, 24, 44, 46]
      Besides investigating the physical effects of medicinal preparations
    of cannabis, nineteenth-century physicians observed the psychic effects
    of the drug in its therapeutic applications.[4, 27, 33]  They found
    that cannabis first mildly stimulates, and then sedates the higher
    centers of the brain.  Hare suggested in 1887 a possible mechanism of
    cannabis' analgesic properties:

          During the time that this remarkable drug is relieving pain a
      very curious psychical condition manifests itself;  namely, that
      the diminution of the pain seems to be due to its fading away in
      the distance, so that the pain becomes less and less, just as the
      pain in a delicate ear would grow less and less as a beaten drum
      was carried farther and farther out of the range of hearing.
          This condition is probably associated with the other well-
      known symptom produced by the drug;  namely, the prolongation of

      Reynolds, in 1890,[33] summed up thirty years of his clinical
    experience using cannabis, finding it useful as a nocturnal sedative in
    senile insomnia, and valuable in treating dysmenorrhea, neuralgias
    including tic douloureux and tabetic symptoms, migraine headache and
    certain epileptoid or choreoid muscle spasms.  He felt it to be of
    uncertain benefit in asthma, alcoholic delirium and depressions.
    Reynolds thought cannabis to be of no value in joint pains that were
    aggravated by motion and in cases of true chronic epilepsy.
      Reynolds stressed the necessity of titrating the dose of each
    patient, increasing gradually every third or fourth day, to avoid
    "toxic" effects:

          The dose should be given in minimum quantity, repeated in not
      less than four or six hours, and gradually increased by one drop
      every third or fourth day, until either relief is obtained, or
      the drug is proved, in such case, to be useless.  With these
      precautions I have never met with any toxic effects, and have
      rarely failed to find, after a comparatively short time, either
      the value or the uselessness of the drug.[33]

      Concerning migraine headache, Osler stated in his text:  Cannabis
    indica is probably the most satisfactory remedy.[11, 28]

      In his definitive survey of the literature and report of his own
    studies, deceptively titled "Marihuana, America's New Drug Problem,"
    Walton notes that cannabis was widely used during the latter half of
    the nineteenth century, and particularly before new drugs were

          This popularity of the hemp drugs can be attributed partly to
      the fact that they were introduced before the synthetic hypnotics
      and analgesics.  Chloral hydrate was not introduced until 1869
      and was followed in the next thirty years by paraldehyde,
      sulfonal and the barbitals.  Antipyrine and acetanilide, the
      first of their particular group of analgesics, were introduced
      about 1884.  For general sedative and analgesic purposes, the
      only drugs commonly used at this time were the morphine
      derivatives and their disadvantages were very well known.  In
      fact, the most attractive feature of the hemp narcotics was
      probably the fact that they did not exhibit certain of the
      notorious disadvantages of the opiates.  The hemp narcotics do
      not constipate at all, they more often increase than decrease
      appetite, they do not particularly depress the respiratory center
      even in large doses, they rarely or never cause pruritis or
      cutaneous eruptions and, most important, the liability of
      developing addiction is very much less than with opiates.[44]

      The use of cannabis in American medicine was seriously affected by
    the increased use of opiates in the latter half of the nineteenth
    century.  With the introduction of the hypodermic syringe into American
    medicine from England in 1856 by Barker and Ruppaner, the use of the
    faster acting, water-soluble opiate drugs rapidly increased.  The Civil
    War helped to spread the use of opiates in this country;  the injected
    drugs were administered widely--and often indiscriminately--to relieve
    the pain of maimed soldiers returning from combat.  (Opiate addiction
    was once called the "army disease."[41])  As the use of injected
    opiates increased, cannabis declined in popularity.
      Cannabis preparations were still widely available in legend and
    over-the-counter forms in the 1930s.  Crump (Chairman, Investigating
    Committee, American Medical Association) in 1931 mentioned the
    proprietaries "Piso's Cure," "One Day Cough Cure" and "Neurosine" as
    containing cannabis.[44]  In 1937 Sasman listed twenty-eight
    pharmaceuticals containing cannabis.[36]  Cannabis was still recognized
    as a medicinal agent in that year, when the committee on legislative
    activities of the American Medical Association concluded as follows:

      . . . there is positively no evidence to indicate the abuse of
      cannabis as a medicinal agent or to show that its medicinal use
      is leading to the development of cannabis addiction.  Cannabis at
      the present time is slightly used for medicinal purposes, but it
      would seem worthwhile to maintain its status as a medicinal agent
      for such purposes as it now has.  There is a possibility that a
      re-study of the drug by modern means may show other advantages to
      be derived from its medicinal use.[32]

      Meanwhile, in Mexico, the poor were smoking marijuana to relax and to
    endure heat and fatigue.  (Originally marijuana was the Mexican slang
    word for the smoking preparation of dried leaves and flowering tops of
    the Cannabis sativa plant--the indigenous variety of the hemp plant.)
      The recreational smoking of marijuana may have started in this
    country in New Orleans in about 1910, and continued on a small scale
    there until 1926, when a newspaper ran a six-part series on the use of
    the drug.[44]  The fad subsequently spread up the Mississippi and
    throughout the United States, faster than local and state laws could be
    passed to discourage it.  The use of "tea" or "muggles" blossomed into
    a minor "psychedelic revolution" of the 1920s.  Narcotics officers
    encouraged the enactment of local prohibitory laws and eventually
    succeeded in bringing about restrictive Federal legislation.  In 1937
    Congress passed the Marihuana Tax Act, the finale to a series of
    prohibitory acts in the individual states.  Under the new laws, the
    already dwindling use of cannabis as a therapeutic substance in
    medicine was brought to a virtual halt.  In 1941, cannabis was dropped
    from the "National Formulary and Pharmacopoeia."
      Around the time of the passage of the Marihuana Tax Act, Walton
    postulated sites of action for cannabis drugs.  Cortical areas, he
    found, are affected at low dosage, while at high dosage there seems to
    be a depressant effect on the thalamo-cortical pathways.  Hyperemia of
    the brain appears to be a local phenomenon, unless centers controlling
    vasodilation might be located in the thalamo-cortical region. Similar
    possible mechanisms are suggested for the phenomenon of mild
    hypoglycemia, usual hunger and thirst and occasional lacrimation and
      Despite restrictive legislation, a few medical researchers have had
    the opportunity to continue the investigation of the therapeutic
    applications of cannabis in recent years.  In his study of the medical
    applications of cannabis for Mayor La Guardia's committee, Dr. Samuel
    Allentuck reported, among other findings, favorable results in treating
    withdrawal of opiate addicts with tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a
    powerful purified product of the hemp plant.[1, 24]
      An article in 1949, buried in a journal of chemical abstracts,
    reported that a substance related to THC controlled epileptic seizures
    in a group of children more effectively than diphenylhydantoin
    (Dilantin(R)), a most commonly prescribed anticonvulsant.[9]
      A number of experimenters, believing that cannabis products might be
    of value in psychiatry, have investigated the applications of various
    forms of them in the treatment of mental disorders.  Cannabis had been
    used in the nineteenth century to treat mental illness.[19, 25, 45, 46]
    However, aside from some rather equivocal clinical studies, primarily
    in the treatment of depression,[29, 30, 35, 39] and another report of
    success in treating withdrawal from alcohol and opiate addiction,[42]
    no significant contemporary psychiatric studies involving cannabis
    therapy have been reported to date.
      Many current "authoritative" publications unequivocally state that
    there is no legitimate medical use for marijuana.  As compared with the
    1800s, this century has seen very little medical research on the array
    of some twenty chemicals that are found in the hemp plant.[37]
      Today's readers may tend to be skeptical about a report of a cure for
    gonorrhea published over a century ago.[19, 25]  Such findings may bear
    reinvestigation, however, in the light of a report from Czechoslovakia
    in 1960 that cannabidiolic acid, a product of the unripe hemp plant,
    has bacteriocidal properties.[7]  Some of the therapeutic applications
    reported in the early medical papers have been corroborated by later
    investigators, but for the most part the therapeutic aspects of
    cannabis remain to be re-explored under modern clinical conditions.
      In the past twenty years, clinical and basic research on cannabis
    have dwindled to practically nothing.  The record of tax stamps issued
    by the Federal Bureau of Narcotics for cannabis research, as compared
    with those for research on narcotic drugs, tells the story of the
    twenty-year "drought" in the investigation of cannabis products:[43]

                                       Users for Purposes of Research,
                                          Instruction, or Analysis

       Year                       Narcotic Drugs              Marijuana

       1938 . . . . . . . . . . . . .   ...                       5
       1941 . . . . . . . . . . . . .    94                      ..
       1943 . . . . . . . . . . . . .   ...                      43
       1946 . . . . . . . . . . . . .   323                      ..
       1948 . . . . . . . . . . . . .   ...                      87
       1951 . . . . . . . . . . . . .  1078                      ..
       1953 . . . . . . . . . . . . .   ...                      18
       1956 . . . . . . . . . . . . .   284                      ..
       1958 . . . . . . . . . . . . .   ...                       6
       1961 . . . . . . . . . . . . .   344                      ..
       1965 . . . . . . . . . . . . .   431                      16

      The rising non-medical use of marijuana both floated and was buoyed
    by the "psychedelic revolution" of the mid 1960s.  The panicked
    reaction included a renewed scientific interest in the drug.
      Eleven studies funded by the National Institute of Mental Health
    1967 concerning cannabis were either specialized animal experiments,
    part of an observational sociologic study of a number of drugs, or
    explorations of chemical detection methods.  No human studies were
      Of the fifty-six projects funded during the next fiscal years 1968-69
    only two used humans.[52]  The next year was somewhat less cautious
    with eight out of thirty-five projects devoted to clinical studies.[53]
      Some of the preliminary results are in from these studies.  Much is
    still unpublished.
      According to Harris, the toxicity factor of marijuana derivatives is
    over two hundred and that chronic smoking of marijuana is less harmful
    to the lungs than tobacco cigarettes.[49]
      Domino described the cross tolerance of THC and alcohol in
    pigeons[47] corroborating Jones' clinical observations.[50, 51]  These
    rediscoveries demand therapeutic trial.

      In August 1971 certain secret Defense Department documents were
    declassified.  While at NIMH as a consulting research psychiatrist in
    1967 I had become aware of the existence of clandestine research at
    Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland.
      From 1954-59 Dr. Van M. Sim was in charge of the project.  He
    reported to "Medical World News:"  "Marijuana . . . is probably the
    most potent anti-epileptic known to medicine today."[49]
      Dr. Harold F. Hardman, then with the Defense contracting group at the
    University of Michigan's Department of Pharmacology reported effects of
    profound hypothermia and felt marijuana derivatives to be potentially
    quite useful in brain and traumatic surgery.[48]
      The principal focus was, however, on the possible use of THC homologs
    as incapacitating agents.  Besides the aforementioned government agency
    and university, the private sector was represented by the Arthur D.
    Little Company of Cambridge, Massachusetts.[55]
      Recently in the course of a study of effects on driving, it was
    incidentally discovered that cannabis lowers intraocular pressure, thus
    being possibly useful in the treatment of glaucoma.[56]
      Thus, a helix is made.  Modern technologic methods confirm
    O'Shaughnessy's observations 130 years ago.  After swinging away from
    the knowledge of marijuana's properties through the worship of new
    synthetics, an unrelated rise of marijuana use socially, illegalization
    and removal from availability for clinical use, medicine rediscovers
      The flame of knowledge is at a low ebb, kept alive by isolated
    scientists and clinicians;  it is now being rekindled by these recent
    circumscribed revelations.

      Unless existing restrictive state and federal laws governing
    marijuana are changed, there will be no future for either modern
    scientific investigation or controlled clinical trial by present-day

      The tide is turning.  The Federal Bureau of Narcotic and Dangerous
    Drugs, National Institute of Mental Health and The Food and Drug
    Administration Joint Committee recently authorized human therapeutic
    trial of cannabis products.  We may now look forward to reinvestigation
    of the numerous possible medical uses of marijuana.[54]
      A concerted effort is indicated for full-scale investigations where
    knowledge is lacking.  Acute and chronic effects of cannabis should be
    restudied by modern methods.  Metabolic pathways of action and
    detoxification need exploration by the pharmaceutical means of today.
    Chronic toxicity studies must be undertaken to examine possible long-
    term effects of cannabis use.  (Cunningham in 1893 found no gross
    central nervous system changes with chronic administration of hemp
    drugs to primates over several months.[8])
      Medical science must again confront the problems of cannabis'
    insolubility in water and its variable strength.  Since human and
    animal responses vary a great deal, individual doses must be titrated.
    The popular "double blind" type of study methods will require revision.
    The reporting of personal drug experience was once acceptable to the
    scientific community.[15, 22, 25, 29, 34, 39, 44]  Humans who are drug
    "sophisticates" will again become indispensable to psychoactive drug
    research, as wine tasters are to the wine industry, for only humans can
    verbally report the subtle and complex effects of these substances.
      Government agencies having stimulated little significant clinical
    research in this field, the pharmaceutical industry should take the
    initiative in starting basic research and clinical studies into the
    purified congeners of cannabis for their chemical properties,
    pharmacologic qualities and therapeutic applications.

    "Possible Therapeutic Applications of
    Tetrahydrocannabinols and Like Products"

       Analgesic-hypnotic [16, 18, 19, 23, 25, 27,33, 45]
       Appetite stimulant [18, 25, 27]
       Antiepileptic-antispasmodic [9, 18, 27, 33, 40, 45, 49]
       Prophylactic and treatment of the neuralgias, including migraine 
    and tic douloureux [3, 16, 17, 18, 19, 23, 25, 28, 31, 33, 38, 40, 45]
       Antidepressant-tranquilizer [6, 16, 18, 19, 23, 25, 31, 33, 40, 45]
       Antiasthmatic [18, 25, 45]
       Oxytocic [25, 45]
       Antitussive [3, 16, 25, 38, 45]
       Topical anesthetic [8]
       Withdrawal agent for opiate and alcohol addiction [5, 23, 24, 38,
    42, 45, 47, 50, 51]
       Childbirth analgesic [12]
       Antibiotic [7]
       Intraocular hypotensive [56]
       Hypothermogenic [48]

      Medicine, being an empiric art, has not hesitated in the past to
    utilize a substance first used for recreational purposes, (Morton
    "discovered" ether for anesthetic purposes after observing medical
    students at "ether frolics" in 1846.  [Howard W. Haggard:  "Devils,
    Drugs and Doctors," Harper and Row, New York, 1929, p. 99.]) in the
    pursuit of the more noble purposes of healing, relieving pain and
    teaching us more of the workings of the human mind and body.  The
    active constituents of cannabis appear to have remarkably low acute and
    chronic toxicity factors and might be quite useful in the management of
    many chronic disease conditions.  More reasonable laws and regulations
    controlling psychoactive drug research are required to permit
    significant medical inquiry to begin so that we can fill the large gaps
    in our knowledge of cannabis.

      1. Adams, Koger:  "Marihuana," "Bulletin of the New York Academy of
    Medicine," 18:705-29, Nov. 1942.
      2. Ames, Frances:  "A clinical and metabolic study of acute
    intoxication with cannabis sativa and its role in the model psychoses,"
    "J. of Mental Science," 104:972-99, Oct. 1958.
      3. Anderson, G. S. D.:  "Remarks on the remedial virtues of cannabis
    indica, or Indian hemp," "Boston Med. and Surg. J.," 67:427-30, 1863.
      4. Bell, John:  "On the haschisch or cannabis indica," "Boston Med.
    and Surg. J.," 56:209-16, 229-36, 1857.
      5. Birch, Edward A.:  "The use of Indian hemp in the treatment of
    chronic chloral and chronic opium poisoning," "Lancet," 1:625, 30 Mar.
      6. Boyd, E. S., and Merritt, D. A.:  "Effects of a
    tetrahydrocannabinol derivative on some motor systems in the cat,"
    "Arch. Internat. de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie," 153:1-12, 1965.
      7. CIBA Foundation Study Group, "Hashish--Its Chemistry and
    Pharmacology," 1964, pp. 45, 49.
      8. Cunningham, D. D.:  Report by Brigade-Surgeon--Lieut. Col. D. D.
    Cunningham, F.R.S., C.I.E., on the nature of the effects accompanying
    the continued treatment of animals with hemp drugs and with dhatura;
    "from" "Report of the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission," 1893-4, Government
    Central Printing Office, Simla, India, 1894, Vol. 3, pp. 192-96.
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     In 1937, a Special Interest Group Got the Cannabis Industry Banned by
  Attacking "Marijuana" While Concealing the Many Valuable Uses of the Plant.
    Today, a Public Interest Group, BACH, Intends to Deregulate Cannabis by
     Promoting "Hemp" and Showing How Everyone Benefits From This Reform.

     We start with a natural core constituency:  Civil libertarians, Rock-n-
   Roll/Rasta/Jazz music fans, paraphernalia makers and users, medical users,
   sympathetic media and officials, Vietnam vets, entrepreneurs, the art
   community and the "Sixties Generation."  We can rapidly win over farmers,
   economists, environmentalists, holistic/natural medicine advocates, the
   unemployed, hunger relief projects, tax reformers and free market/anti-Big
   Government forces and others.

         THE FARMING COMMUNITY is our linchpin, linking the Northwest, 
       Midwest and South.  It is in financial trouble and will be the 
       first major beneficiary of hemp commerce.
       RECREATIONAL USERS are concentrated in coastal and urbanized 
       population centers.
       regions, create a role for the Interstate Commerce Commission 
       (ICC) in deregulating hemp and add to the financial pressure 
       for reform.
         We anticipate strong resistance in pharmaceuticals and 
       plastics, where entrenched forces stand to lose a share of the 
       market when hemp products come into common use.
         But this pressure will soon be offset by the support of hemp
       industry consumers, investors and workers who benefit from new
       spin-off industries.

                              CAMPAIGN SUMMARY

 PHASE ONE:  ORGANIZATION:  Develop and target literature and lobby campaigns,
 alert our consituency, explain the economic and social significance of this 
 reform to potential allies and win "celebrity" endorsements.  We need to
 demonstrate an interstate supply and demand network to establish the economic
 vitality of hemp commerce, thereby drawing financial and political support
 and setting the stage for ICC intervention against state laws that impede

 PHASE TWO:  PUBLIC RELATIONS:  Launch a program of speaking engagements and
 advertisments (PSAs and paid) to redefine the hemp debate, sway the general
 public and create a climate of support based on people's self-interest.  Our
 goal is to disassociate hemp from "drugs" and align it with jobs, prosperity
 and traditional American self-sufficiency.

 PHASE THREE:  DEREGULATION:  Introduce non-threatening deregulation 
 legislation, support initiatives/referenda, set up test cases to pursue
 legalization through the courts and use business pressure to win ICC action.

   BACH  Business Alliance for Commerce in Hemp
         P.O. Box 71903, Los Angeles, CA  90071-0093  


     "We are able to inform you that ancient grandfathers, the great stands
   of cedar and redwoods, are in danger of extinction by chainsaws.  The 
   maple, chief of trees, is dying from the top down, as was prophesied by
   Ganiodaiio, Handsome Lake, in 1799.  Great rivers and streams are filled
   with chemicals and filth, and these great veins of life are being used 
   as sewers.
     "We were told the female is sacred and carries the gift of life as our
   Mother Earth, the family is the center of our life and that we must build
   our communities with life and respect for one another.
     "We were told the Creator loves children the most, and we can tell the
   state of affairs of the nation by how the children are being treated.
     "When we return to Onondaga, we will begin our Great Midwinter
   ceremonies.  We will tie the past year in a bundle and give thanks once
   again for another year on this earth.
     "This was given to us, and we have despoiled and polluted it.  If we are
   to survive, dear friends and colleagues, we must clean it up now or suffer
   its consequences.
     . . .  But Lyons also remembered turning to Leon Shenandoah, chief of 
   the Grand Council of the Six Nations Confederacy.  "My chief, he doesn't 
   say much, but I asked and he said, `They're not taking it serious enough.  
   I don't think they realize what's going to happen to them.  What's coming.'
   He would have liked to see less posturing.  We have our prophecies.  We 
   know what is coming down the road.'"
                        -- Onondaga Chief Oren Lyons, on the Global Forum he 
                           helped organize on Environment and Development for 
                           Survival held in Moscow, January 15 to 19, 1990.