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Mushroom Pioneers
by John W. Allen

Aguirre-Beltran, G. 1955. El proceso de aculturación y el Curanderiso en México. Medicine and Magic: Chap. 6-7. Mimeo- graphed. México City.

Allen, J. W. 1987. Wasson's First Voyage. High Times vol. 146:40-41, 68. Trans High Corp. New York.

------. 1997a. María Sabina: Saint Mother of the Sacred Mushrooms. Ethnomycological Journals Sacred Mushroom Studies vol. I:1-28. RaverBooks. Seattle

------. 1997b. Wasson's First Voyage: The Rediscovery of Entheogenic Mushrooms. Ethnomycological Journals Sacred Mushroom Studies vol. II:1-30.

------. 1997c. Teonanácatl: Ancient and Contemporary Shamanic Mushroom Names of Mesoamerica and Other Regions of the World. Ethnomycological Journals Sacred Mushroom Studies vol. III:1-47.

Antoine, P. 1970. Les Champignons Hallucinogènes. Mem. Mycol. Hum., et Veterinaire, Inst. Med. Trop. Anvers, Antwerp.

Baer, G. 1967. Statistical results on reactions of normal subjects to the psilocybin derivatives CEY 19 and CZ 74. Neuro-psychopharmacology vol. 129:400-404. Proc. 5th Int. Cong. of Neuro Pharm.

Baron, F. 1963. Creativity and Psychological Health. D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc. New York (see p74-75, 250-255).

Cairns, H. 1929. (Mag.). A divine intoxicant. vol. 144(5):638-645. November.

Clark, J. 1970. The use of psilocybin in a prison setting. In: Aaronson, B. and H. Osmond (Eds.) Psychedelics:40-44. Anchor Books. New York.

Clark, W. H. 1969. Historical notes: The Harvard incident. Chemical Ecstasy: Psychedelic Drugs and Religion:40-62. Sheed and Ward. New York.

Davis, W. 1998. One River. Touchstone. New York.

De Borhegyi, S. F. 1962. (Arch.). The enigmatic mushroom stones of Mesoamerica. Middle America Research Institute. Middle America Research Records. Tulane University. New Orleans.

Doblin, R. 1999-2000. Dr. Leary's Concord Prison Experiment: A 34 Year Follow Up Study. MAPS Bulletin vol. IX(4):10-18.

Emboden, W. A.. 1979. Narcotic Plants. Second edition Revised and Enlarged. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York.

Estrada, A.. 1976[1981]. María Sabina: her Life, Her Chants. An Autobiography. Ross-Erikson. California. Translated into English by Henry Munn. Available in Spanish, French, Portuguese and German.

Finkelstein, N. 1969. Hongi Meester. Psychedelic Review Vol. 10:52-63.

Ford, W. W. 1923. Mushroom Poisoning [classification]. Assc. Amer. Phys. Trans. vol. 38:225-229.

Furst, P. T. 1986. Mushrooms: Psychedelic Fungi. Psychoactive Mushrooms. Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Drugs. Chelsea House Publ. New York.

Gartz, J. 1996. Magic Mushrooms around the World. Lis Publications. Los Angeles. Translated from German by Claudia Taake.

Gordon, N. 1963. (Mag.). The Hallucinogenic Drug Cult. The Reporter:35-43. August 15.

Gottleib, A. 1976. The Psilocybin Producers Guide. Kistone Press. California.

-------. 1997. Psilocybin Production. Ronin Publishing. Berkeley, California.

-------. [Ed., Beverly Potter] 1998. Psychedelic Underground Classics. Twentieth Century Alchemist Publishers and Ronin Publishing. Berkeley, California.

Graves, R. 1962. A Journey to Paradise: Of toadstools and toxins, and a vivid tour of the Heaven (and Hell). Holiday vol. 32(2):36-37, 100-111.

Guzmán, G. 1977a. Distribution of the Mexican fungi with discussions on the relationships with the South American mycoflora. In: IMC2-2nd International Congress Abstracts vol. A-L:253. Saturday, August 27-September 3, 1977. University of South Florida at Tampa.

------. 1977b. The hallucinogenic species of the genus Psilocybe in the world. IMC2-2nd International Congress Abstracts vol. A-L:254. Saturday, August 27-September 3, 1977. University of South Florida at Tampa.

------. 1983. The Genus Psilocybe: a systematic Revision of the Known Species Including the History, Distribution and Chemistry of the Hallucinogenic Species. Beih Nova Hedwigia vol. 74. J. Cramer. Vaduz, Germany.

Guzmán-Davalos, L. and G. Guzmán. 1991. Additions to the Genus Gymnopilus (Agaricales, Cortinariaceae) from Mexico. Mycotaxon vol. XLI(1):43-56.

Halifax, J. 1979. María Sabina. Shamanic Voices: A Survey of Visionary Narratives. Chapter 5. Wondrous Medicine:129-135. E. P. Dutton. New York.

Heim, R. 1963. Les Champignons Toxiques et Hallucinogènes. Boubee et Cie. Paris. New edition, 1978.

Heim, R. and R. G. Wasson. 1958. Les Champignons Hallucinogènes du Mexique: Etude Ethnologiques, taxonomiques, biologiques, physiologiques et chemiques. With the collaboration of Albert Hofmann, Roger Cailleux, A. Cerletti, Arthur Brack, Hans Kobel, Jean DeLay, Pierre Pichot, Th. Lempiere and J. Nicolas-Charles. (Archives Du Museum National d'Histoire Naturalle ser. 7 vol. 6). Paris. 322pp. 36 Plates.

Hofmann, A. 1958. Rapport sur une Auto-Experience avec le Psilocybe mexicana Heim. Les Champignons Hallucinogenes du Mexique:278-280. Ed. Du Mus. Nat. d'Hist. Nat. Paris.

------. 1959 Chemical aspects of psilocybin, the psychotropic principle from the Mexican fungus, Psilocybe mexicana Heim. Neuro-psychopharmacology vol. 1:446-448. September. 1st Int. Cong. of Neuro-Pharm. Rome. Italy.

------. 1971. Teonanacatl and Ololiuqui: Two ancient magic drugs of Mexico. Bulletin on Narcotics vol. 23(1):3-14. United Nations Publication.

------. 1978. History of the basic chemical investigations of the sacred mushrooms. In (Editors, Ott, J. and Bigwood, J.): Teonanacatl: Hallucinogenic Mushrooms of North America:47-61. Proceedings from the 2nd International Conference on Hallucinogenic Mushrooms. Ft. Wordon, Port Townsend, Washington, November 27-30, 1977. Psycho-Mycological Studies No. 2. Seattle, Madrona Publishers.

------. 1980. The Mexican relatives of LSD--The sacred mushroom Teonanácatl. LSD My Problem Child:101-144. McGraw-Hill. New York. Translated from German by Jonathan Ott.

------. 1990. Ride through the Sierra Mazateca in search of the magic plant 'Ska Maria Pastora'. In: Thomas J. Reidlinger (ed.) The Sacred Mushroom Seeker: Essays for R. Gordon Wasson:115-128. Dioscorides Press. Portland, Oregon.

Hofmann, A., Heim, R., Brack, A., and H. Kobel. 1958a. La Psilocybine, Principe Actif Psychotrope Extrait-du Champignon Hallucinogene Psilocybe mexicana Heim. Les Champignons Hallucinogenes du Mexique:255-257. Du Mus. Nat. D'hist. Nat. Paris.

------, ------ and H. Kobel. 1958b. Psilocybin, ein psychotroper Wirkstoff aus dem Mexikanischen Rauschpilz Psilocybe mexicana Heim. Experientia vol. 14(3):107-109. March. Also in: Revue du Mycologie vol. 23(1):114-118. April 15., and In: Nouv Observ:17-21.

Hofmann, A., Frey, A., Ott, H., Petrzilka, Th., and F. Troxler. 1958. Konstitutionsaufklarung und Synthese von Psilocybin. Experientia vol. 14(11):397-399.

Hofmann, A. with R. Heim, Brack, A., Kobel, H., Frey, A., Ott, H., Petrzilka, Th., and F. Troxler. 1959. Psilocybin und Psilocin, zwei Psychotrope Wirkstoffe aus Mexikanischen Rauschpilzen. Helv. Chim. Acta. vol. 42(5):1557-1572.

Jacobs, K. W.. 1975. Hallucinogenic Mushrooms in Mississippi. Journal of the Mississippi State Medical Association vol. 16:35-37.

Jones, R. 1963. Up on psilocybin. Harvard Review vol. 1(4):38-43. Summer.

Johnson, J. B. 1939a. Some notes on the Mazatec. Revista Mexicana de Anthropologia vol. 3(2):142-156.

Kahn, E. J. 1992. (Mag.). Profiles: Jungle Botanist. New Yorker:35-58. June 1.

Klüver, H. 1966. Mescal [sic]. and Mechanisms of Hallucination. University of Chicago Press. Chicago, Ill.

Koestler, A. 1961. Letter to Tim Leary. Feb 17, 1961.

Krippner, S. 1987. Healing States. (Also see Aromin, 1973: In: Krippner, 1983).

------. 1994. 1. Ritual Mushroom and Peyote Use in Mesoamerica. The use of Altered Conscious States in North and South American Indian Shamanic Healing Rituals. In: Jarbuch Für Transkulturelle Medizin und Psychotherapie (Yearbook of Cross-Cultural Medicine and Psychotherapy:1810202.

Krippner, S. and M. Winkelman. 1983. María Sabina: Wise lady of the mushrooms. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs vol. 15(3):225-228. July-September.

Leary, T. F. 1961a. A program of research with consciousness-altering substances. Harvard University, Center for Research in Personality. Undated (Spring or Summer of 1961). Covering the academic year of 1960-1961. Mimeographed.

------. 1961b. Memorandum on Current Psilocybin projects. Center for Research in Personality. Harvard University. Fall of 1961.

------. 1961c. Letter to Alan Watts. Feb 13, 1961.

------. 1961d. Letter to Arthur Koestler. April 25, 1961.

------. 1961e. Letter to Aldous Huxley. May 10, 1961.

------. 1963. Report on the Harvard Psilocybin Project. Unpublished. January 15.

------. 1995[1968]. High Priest. Ronin Publishing Inc. Berkeley, California.

------. 1969. The effects of consciousness expanding drugs on prisoner rehabilitation. Psychedelic Review vol. 10:29-44.

------. 1983. Flashbacks: A Personal and Cultural History of an Era. Los Angeles. J. P. Tarcher Inc.

Leary, T. F. and W. H. Clark. 1963. (Mag.). Religious implications of consciousness expanding drugs. Religious Education:251-256.

Leary, T. and R. Metzner. 1968. Use of Psychedelic Drugs in Prisoner Rehabilitation. British Journals of Social Psychiatry vol.2:27-51.

Leary, T. F. with Litwin, G. and R. Metzner. 1962. Americans and mushrooms in a naturalistic environment. A preliminary report. Spring. 9 pp. manuscript. Harvard University.

Leary, T. F., Litwin, G., and R. Metzner. 1963. Reactions to psilocybin administered in a supportive environment. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases vol. 137(6):561-573.

Leary, T. F., Metzner, R., Presnell, M., Weil, G., Schwitzgebel, R., and S. Kinne. 1965. A New Behavior change program for adult offenders using psilocybin. Psychotherapy: Therapy, Research, and Practice vol. 2(2). July. Chicago, Illinois.

Lee, M. A. and B. Shlain. 1985. (CIA). Under the mushroom and over the rainbow. Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD, and the Sixties Rebellion:71-97. Grove Press Inc. New York.

Lennon, John and Yoko Ono. (Circa 1970s). A letter to Tim Leary.

Lincoln, J. 1967. One Mans Mexico: A Record of Travel and Encounters. The Bodley Head. London.

Lipp, F. J. The Mixe of Oaxaca: Religion, Ritual, and Healing. University of Texas Press. Austin.

Lowy, B. 1971. (Mushroom Stones). New records of mushroom stones from Guatemala. Mycologia vol. 63:983-999.

------. 1972. Mushroom symbolism in Maya codices. Mycologia vol. 64:816-821.

Marks, J. 1979. The Search for the Manchurian Candidate. Dell. New York.

Mayer, K. H. 1977. The Mushroom Stones of Mesoamerica. Acoma Books. California. Translated from the German.

Metzner, R. 1970. Mushrooms and the mind. In: Aaronson, B. and H. Osmond (Eds.) Psychedelics: The Uses and Implications of Hallucinogenic Drugs:90-107. Doubleday/Anchor. Garden City, New Jersey.

Metzner, R. 1999-2000. Reflections on the Concord Prison Project and the Follow-Up Study. MAPS Bulletin Vol. IX(4):19-20.

Metzner, R. and G. M. Weil. 1963. Predicting Recidivism: Base Rates for Massachusetts Correctional Institute Concord. Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science Vol. 54(3):3070316.

Metzner, R., Litwin, G. and G. M. Weil. 1965. The relation of expectations and moods to psilocybin reactions: a questionnaire study. Psychedelic Review # 5:3-39.

Miller, O. K. 1971. Mushrooms of North America. Dutton. New York.

Munn, H. 1973. The Mushrooms of Language. In: Harner, M. J. (Ed.) Hallucinogens and Shamanism:86-122. Oxford University Press. London.

National Geographic Magazine. Various issues on Mexico.

Ola'h, G.-M. 1969. A taxonomic and physiological study of the genus Panaeolus with the Latin descriptions of the new species. Revue de Mycologie vol. 33(4):284-290. April 1.

------. 1970. Le Genre Panaeolus: Essai Taxinenomique et Physiologique. Revue de Mycologie M. Memoire Hors-ser # 10. 222pp.

Ott, J. 1976. Hallucinogenic Plants of North America. Psycho-Mycological Studies No. 1. Wingbow Press. Berkeley, California. Revised edition 1979.

------. 1993. Psilocybine-Psilocine-Baeocystine: the Teonanácatl Complex. Pharmacotheon: Entheogenic Drugs, their plant sources and history:275-319. Natural Products. Kenniwick, Washington.

------. 1994. Pers. Comm. to the authors.

------. and Bigwood, J. [Eds.]. 1978. Teonanácatl: Hallucinogenic Mushrooms of North America. Madrona Publishers. Seattle, Washington.

Pike, E. V. 1960. Mazatec sexual impurity and bible teaching. Practical Anthropology vol. 7(2):49-53. April.

Pike, E. V. and F. Cowan. 1959. Mushroom ritual versus Christianity. Practical Anthropology vol. 6(4):145-150. July-August.

Richardson, A. B. 1990. Recollections of R. Gordon Wasson's `friend and photographer'. In: Thomas J. Riedlinger (ed.) The Sacred Mushroom Seeker: Essays for R. Gordon Wasson:193-204. Dioscorides Press. Portland, Oregon.

Riedlinger, T. J. 1990b. A latecomer's view of R. Gordon Wasson. In: Thomas J. Riedlinger (ed.) The Sacred Mushroom Seeker: Essays for R. Gordon Wasson:205-220. Dioscorides Press. Portland, Oregon. Ethnomycological Studies no. 11.

Riedlinger, T. J. and T. Leary. 1994. Strong Medicine for Prisoner Reform: The Concord Prison Experiment. MAPS Bulletin Vol. 4(4):22-25.

Reko, B. P. 1919. De los Nombres Botanicos Aztecos. El Mexico Antiguo vol. 1(5):113-117. February.

------. 1923. Letter to J. N. Rose. Herbarium Sheet Number # 1745713. U. S. National Museum. Washington, D. C.

Reko, V. A. 1936 [1938, 1939]. Magische Gifte: Rausch und Betäubungsmittel der Neuen Welt:123-132. Ferdinand Enke Verlag. Stuttgart, Germany.

Roberts, T. and B. Jesse. 1998. Recollections of the Good Friday Experiment: An Interview with Huston Smith. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology vol. 29(2):99-104.

Rumack, B. and E. Salzman. 1978. Mushroom Poisoning: Diagnosis and Treatment. CRC Press. West Palm Beach. Ryan, M. 1980. Recording the colleges dark period: 1960-1973. The Harvard Crimson Anthology / 100 Years at Harvard:10. Edited by Greg Lawless. Houghton-Mifflin Co. Boston.

Safford, W. E. 1915. An Aztec narcotic. Journal of Heredity vol. 6:291-311. July.

------. 1923. Peyotl. Journal of the American Medical Association vol. 77:1278-1279. October.

Sandford, J. 1973. In Search of the Magic Mushroom. Clarkson N. Porter. New York.

Santesson, C. G. 1939. Einige Mexikanische Rauschdrogen. Archiv Für Botanik vol. 29A(12):1-9.

Schultes, R. E. 1939. The identification of Teonanácatl, a narcotic basidiomycete of the Aztecs. Botanical Museum Leaflets of Harvard vol. 7(3):37-54. February 21.

------. 1940. Teonanácatl: The narcotic mushroom of the Aztecs. American Anthropologist vol. 42:429-443.

------. 1978. Evolution of the identification. In: Ott, Jonathan and Jeremy Bigwood (Eds.) Teonanácatl: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Hallucinogenic Mushrooms:25-43. Madrona Publ. Seattle.

------. 1987. Personal Communication.

------. 1988. Personal Communication.

------. 1989. Personal Communication.

Schultes, R. E. and A. Bright. 1979. Ancient pectorals from Colombia: Mushroom effigies. Botanical Museum Leaflets of Harvard vol.27(5-6):113-141. May-June.

Schultes, R. E. and A. Hofmann. 1973. The Botany and Chemistry of the Hallucinogens. 2nd edition 1980.

Schultes, R. E. and A. Hofmann. 1979. Plants of the Gods: Origins of Hallucinogenic Use. McGraw-Hill Book Co. New York.

Sheff, D. 1987. (Int.). Timothy Leary. Rolling Stone No. 512:226-228. Twentieth Anniversary Issue. November 5-December 10.

Singer, R. 1949. The Agaricales (Mushrooms) in Modern Taxonomy. Lilloa vol. 22:472, 506. 832p. 2nd edition from University of Tucuman, Argentina, August 1962. See pp. 543-544.

------. 1957. Sacred mushrooms inspire medical research. Chicago Natural History Museum Bulletin:7.

------. 1958. Mycological investigations on Teonanácatl, the Mexican hallucinogenic mushrooms part one: The history of Teonanácatl, field work and culture. Mycologia vol. 50(2)239-261. April.

------. 1978b. Hallucinogenic mushrooms. In: Rumack, Barry H. and Emanuell Satlzman's Mushroom Poisoning: Diagnosis and Treatment:201-214.

Singer, R. and A. H. Smith. 1958b. Mycological investigations on Teonanácatl, the Mexican Hallucinogenic mushrooms part two: A taxonomic monograph of Psilocybe section Caerulescens. Mycologia vol. 50(2):262-303. March-April.

Southcott, R. V. 1974. Notes on Some Poisonings and other clinical effects following the ingestion of Australian fungi. South Australian Clinic vol. 6(5):441-478.

Stafford, P. 1977. Psilocybin mushrooms. Psychedelic Encyclopedia:195-255. 384p. And/Or Press. Berkeley. Revised 1982 edition appears as chapter 4:224-279. J. P. Tarcher, Inc. Los Angeles. (See next entry).

Stafford, P.------. 1980. Psilocybin und Andere Pilze. 71p. Raymon Martin Verlag. Informationsreihe Drogen 4. Germany. Excerpted from Peter Stafford's Psychedelic Encyclopedia.

Stein, S. I. 1958. An unusual effect from a species of Mexican mushrooms. Psilocybe cubensis. Mycopathologia et Mycologia Applicata vol. 9(4):236-267.

------ 1959. Clinical observations on the effects of Panaeolus venonosus vs. Psilocybe caerulescens. Mycologia vol. 51(1):49-50.

Stevens, J. 1987a. (CIA). Noises off stage. Storming Heaven: LSD and the American Dream:74-87. Atlantic Monthly Press. New York. (See next three entries).

------. 1987b. (CIA). Wild geese . Storming Heaven: LSD and the American Dream:121-135. Atlantic Monthly Press. New York.

------. 1987c. Harvard psilocybin project. Storming Heaven: LSD and the American Dream:136-158. Atlantic Monthly Press. New York.

------. 1987d. What happened at Harvard. Storming Heaven: LSD and the American Dream:159-170. Atlantic Monthly Press. New York.

Stresser-Péan, G. 1990. Travels with R. Gordon Wasson in Mexico, 1956-1962. In: Thomas J. Riedlinger (ed.) The Sacred Mushroom Seeker: Essays for R. Gordon Wasson:231-238. Ethnomycological Studies No. 11.

Swain, F. 1962. Four psilocybin experiences: 1. El hongo mistico. Tomorrow vol. 10(4):27-34. Autumn. Also in: Psychedelic Review #2. Spring 1963.

Tyler, V. E. and D. Groger. 1964. Occurrence of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine and 5-hydroxytryptophan in Panaeolus sprinctrinus. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science vol. 53(4):462-463.

Unsigned. 1959. Road to endsville. Newsweek. February 9.

------. 1961b. (Mushroom Stones). Miniature mushrooms stones from Guatemala. American Antiq. vol. 26(4):498-504. April.

------. 1970. Hippies flocking to México for mushroom trips. New York Times:6c. July 23.

------. 1963a. Psychic Research, LSD, And All That. Time. March 29.

------. 1963b. No Illusions. Newsweek. June 10.

Villacorta, A. J. C. and C. A. Villacorta. 1927. (Arch.). On mushroom stones. Arqueologia Guatemala:123-125. Guatemala.

Weil, A. 1963. Drugs and the mind. Harvard Review vol. 1(4):1-3. Summer.

------. 1977. The use of psychoactive mushrooms in the Pacific Northwest. Botanical Museum Leaflets of Harvard vol. 25(5):131-148. June 30.

------. 1980. Marriage of the Sun and the Moon. A Quest for Unity in Consciousness. Houghton-Mifflin Company. Boston.