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Ayahuasca: alkaloids, plants & analogs
assembled by Keeper of the Trout
Section 3 : Part 3 :
Admixture Common Names

Common names for some of the plants reported as, or suspected of being, ayahuasca additives or used in connection with it.

Includes ayahuasca analog admixtures currently used in technological cultures, a few minor and/or suspected sources, some terminology associated with these drugs and/or their users, and similar or identical common names that are applied to other plants.

This list also includes some other active hallucinogens´ common names and a few pertinent words associated with vinho da Jurema & its admixtures, the genus Mimosa and some additional specialized terminology used by some of San Pedro's people.

(Some entries may also be used as a hallucinogen and many have medicinal purposes on their own. Details for either point can be found by consulting our references)

See the "by species" listing for more references on the following ayahuasca admixture entries:

See separate list for common names and words associated with ayahuasca source plants.

For a listing of common names by-species please see the the entry for each species within the index.

Assembled by Keeper of the Trout 1998 & 2004


    abaca: Ocimum micranthum Will. [Labiatae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Pinkley 1969.

    abaracaatinga: Common name used in Brazil for Mimosa scabrella [Leguminosae]; Barneby 1991. Not yet reported to be bioassayed as an ayahuasca analog admixture but a potential source.

    abuta: Abuta grandifolia (Mart.) Sandwith [Menispermaceae] Luna 1984b. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b. Ese'eja name for Abuta grandifolia (They use it medicinally but do not combine it with ayahuasca) Desmarchelier et al. 1996

    abuta branca: Abuta grandifolia (Mart.) Sandwith [Menispermaceae] Setor de Fitoquímica 1971.

    achuma: Name used for Trichocereus pachanoi [Cactaceae]. Glass-Coffin 1998

    agua de kanaga: Floral fragrance (red in color) used by some San Pedro curanderos. Also incorporated into the "water of the fourteen spirits". Used ritually by some Peruvian curanderos. Glass-Coffin 1998

    agua florida: Floral fragrance ("Florida water") used by some San Pedro curanderos. Also incorporated into the "water of the fourteen spirits". Used ritually by somePeruvian curanderos. Glass-Coffin 1998

    ai curo: Name used by the Peruvian Shipibo-Conibo for a Euphorbia sp. [Euphorbiaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Tournon & Reategui 1984.

    ain-vai: Name given by Kofán for Brugmansia suaveolens (H. & B.) Berchtold & Presl [Solanaceae] Schultes 1980 cited Pinkley.

    aji: Peruvian name for a Capsicum sp. [Solanaceae]

    aji de monte:[Bonafousia tetrastachya (HBK) Markgraf (Tabernaemontana siphilitica) [Apocynaceae] as known in Colombia; Schultes & Raffauf 1986; there is no report of its use in ayahuasca.]

    ajo sacha: Mansoa alliacea (Lam.) Gentry [Bignoniaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    ajua apumpo: Common name for Virola calophylla (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    ajucá: Hallucinogenic drink prepared, in eastern Brazil, from Mimosa hostilis roots; Gonçalves de Lima 1946.

    amaciza: Erythrina poeppigiana (Walp.) O.F. Cook [Leguminosae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna n.d..

    amala: Seeds (not identified) that are incorporated into the "water of the fourteen spirits". Used ritually by some Peruvian curanderos. Glass-Coffin 1998

    amanga: Rudgea retifolia Standley [Rubiaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990.

    amarón borachéra: name applied to a Datura (Brugmansia?) cultivated but not used by Bristol's Sibundoy informant. Bristol 1966

    amarón borrachera: Common name (Spanish word) for Brugmansia candida "Amarón" cultivar. Bristol 1969

    amaron borrachero: ( "Intoxicant of the boa") Vernacular name used in Colombian Putumayo for Pontederia cordata L. [Pontederiaceae]; Schultes 1972a and Schultes 1972c: the latter cited Schultes 1972a. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited McKenna et al. 1986.

    amarrar: To tie up. Glass-Coffin 1998

    amarrón borrachera: Common name (Spanish word) for Brugmansia candida "Amarón" cultivar. Bristol 1969

    amarrón chagrupanga: Common name given on herbarium voucher of B. rusbyana (D. cabrerana?)(Ndz.) Mort. collected in the Región de Mocoa, Comisaría del Putumayo, Colombia. Bristol 1966 Unclear if this referred to B. rusbyana or if it meant D. cabrerana. The latter is the more likely.

    amasisa: Erythrina poeppigiana [Leguminosae].

    amasisa: Erythrina fusca Lour. (= E. glauca Willd.) [Leguminosae]

    amasisa: Erythrina glauca [Leguminosae] Luna 1984b.

    amazizo: Ese'eja name for Erythrina ulei (They use it medicinally but do not combine it with ayahuasca) Desmarchelier et al. 1996

    ambi caspi: "poison small tree" Common name for Composoneura sprucei (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    amiruca panga: A name used in Peru for Psychotria viridis. Ott 1995.

    amirucapanga: Name used in Ecuador for the ayahuasca additive Psychotria viridis. Ott 1994 and Ott 1995

    am-pi'-ree: Not a reported admixture. Thick tobacco syrup used by the Bora. Schultes et al. 1977a

    anaconda leaf: "yakomamamshi" A Matsigenka name for Psychotria viridis Shepard 1998

    andaquí borrachera: Common name (Inga word) for Brugmansia "Andrés" cultivar [possibly a hybrid between B. candida and B. suaveolens?]. Bristol 1969

    angel's trumpet: Common name (English) for Brugmansia x insignis (B. Rodr.) Lockwood [Solanaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    angus caspi: Common name for Virola duckei (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    antyavigari: Another word for seripigari. Shepard 1998 anubedsetetseperi: Culina name for a Cyperus species (known as piri-piri in Peru)

    anya huapa: Common name for Virola calophylla, Virola duckei, Virola elongata, Virola pavonis and also an unidentified Virola species. (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    appane: Culina name for the Psychotria sp. [Guttiferae] that the Sharanahua call kawa. Pinkley 1969.

    appane: Culina name for a Clusia sp. [Guttiferae] Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Schultes 1972c cited Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Reported and vouched by Rivier and Rüff; Pinkley 1969.

    AQ-1: An Italian strain of Phalaris aquatica cultivated specifically for its high DMT content. See Bianchi & Samorini 1993.

    arbol de campanilla: A name used in southern Colombia and Ecuador for Iochroma fuchsioides Miers. Schultes 1983d.

    ardilla paparahua: Common name for Virola duckei (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    arrangue: A potion given at end of San Pedro ceremony to "cut" the influence of the San Pedro. Glass-Coffin 1998

    artes: a power object or the ritual and magical elements within a mesa. Glass-Coffin 1998

    ashango: Seeds (not identified) that are incorporated into the "water of the fourteen spirits". Used ritually by some curanderos. Glass-Coffin 1998

    assacu: Hura crepitans L. [Euphorbiaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    assacú-rana: Erythrina fusca Lour. (= E. glauca Willd.) [Leguminosae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    auca ayahuasca: See MAOI source plant common name list.

    Australian commercial (cv. Australian): A cultivar of Phalaris aquatica cultivated for its DMT content. Not known as a traditional ayahuasca additive but its foliage is being successfully used for this purpose in modern times due to its DMT/ 5-MeO-DMT content.

    awamoncawe: Waorani name for Iryanthera cf. elliptica Ducke. (Used against fungus and scabies.) Davis & Yost 1983b [All "e" have / through them: sounds like "a" in cat]

    ayahuasca: Name in Colombian Putumayo for Juanulloa ochracea Cuatr. [Solanaceae]; Schultes 1972c. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes 1979.

    ayahuasca: Name used by Siona-Secoya for Rinorea viridiflora Rusby [Violaceae] ayahuasca negro: Name used for Diplopterys involuta(Turcz.) Niedenzu [= Mezia includens] [Malpighiaceae] in the Departmento de Huánuco, Provincia de Pachitea, Bosque Nacional de Iparia, Peru but there are apparently no reports of it actually being incorporated in the preparation of ayahuasca. Ott 1994 and Schultes 1983c.

    ayahuma: Couroupita guianensis Aubl. [Lecythidaceae] Luna 1984b. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.
    "ayahuman" Luna 1984a and McKenna et al. 1986.

    ayepewe: Waorani name for Otoba parvifolia (Mkf.) A. Gentry. Davis & Yost 1983b [All "e" have / through them: sounds like "a" in cat]

    ayllu: An extended social family or community based on kinship and residence/ territory which forms the basis of productive relations in Peru today. Glass-Coffin 1998

    azul: Name listed for Juanulloa ochracea Cuatr. [Solanaceae] by Duke & Vasquez 1994.

    ba su'u: Common name used by the Secoya (in eastern Ecuador) for Tabernaemontana sananho [as Bonafousia sananho] [Apocynaceae]. Vickers & Plowman 1984

    bamba: Ficus insipida Will. [Moraceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    banco: Field of the mesa. Glass-Coffin 1998

    banco curandero: "curing bench" Name used for right side of mesa. Glass-Coffin 1998

    banco de gloria: Right hand field of the mesa (gloria meaning heaven) Glass-Coffin 1998

    banco ganadero: Name used for left side of mesa. Glass-Coffin 1998

    batahua: Name used for Capirona decorticans Spruce [Rubiaceae] by the Chácobo living at Alto Ivón, Beni, Bolivia. Boom 1987.

    batsikawa: one of two Psychotrias used by Sharanahua. Considered inferior to Pishikawa. Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990.

    bayapia: An unidentified plant sometimes added to induce nausea. (by Desana and Pira-Tapuya). Reichel-Dolmatoff 1972 Thought to be a hallucinogen. Reichel-Dolmatoff 1975

    bellaco-caspi: Himatanthus sucuuba (Spr. ex M. -A.) Woodson [Apocynaceae] Luna 1984b. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    bi'ã uhahai: "bird Brunfelsia" Common name (Siona) for a Brunfelsia species that "may be Brunfelsia grandiflora subsp. schultesii"[Identity of this plant is uncertain; it was not collected] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    biangán borrachera: Common name (Inga word) for Brugmansia candida "Biangán" cultivar. Bristol 1969

    bimichëxë: Name used for Psychotria poeppigiana Muell.-Arg. [Rubiaceae] by the Chácobo living at Alto Ivón, Beni, Bolivia. Boom 1987.

    bi-ti-ka-oo-k: Juanulloa ochracea Cuatr. [Solanaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes 1979

    bi-tika-uko: Siona name for Juanulloa ochracea Cuatr. [Solanaceae] Schultes 1980

    bobinsana: Capirona decorticans Spruce [Leguminosae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    bobinsana: Name used for Calliandra angustifolia Spruce ex Bentham [Leguminosae] in Peru; Von Reis Altschul 1975.

    boca pintada: Name listed for Psychotria poeppigiana Muell.-Arg. [Rubiaceae]. Duke & Vasquez Martinez 1993

    bombonaje: Common name name (Spanish) for Carludovica palmata R. & P. [Cyclanthaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    borachéra : Datura candida (Pers.) Saff. Bristol 1966

    borrachera: Alternanthera lehmanii Hieronymus [Amaranthaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Garcia-Barriga 1958.

    borrachera: Common name (Spanish word) for Brugmansia candida "Buyés", "Dientes" and "Ocre" cultivars. Sibundoy consider this to be a Kamsá word for Brugmansia candida. Name used in the Colombian Sibundoy Valley for Brugmansia species. Spanish term meaning "inebrient". Sibundoy consider it a Kamsá morpheme rather than a loan word. Bristol 1969

    borrachera: Iochroma fuchsioides (HBK.) Miers [Solanaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited McKenna et al. 1986.
    A name used in southern Colombia and Ecuador Schultes 1983d.

    borrachera: Name used in the Colombian Sibundoy Valley for Iresine celosia L., Iresine herbstii Hook. f., and other unidentified plants. Bristol 1969

    borrachera andake: A name used in southern Colombia and Ecuador for Iochroma fuchsioides Miers. Schultes 1983d.

    borrachera de agua: Common name (Spanish word) for Brugmansia candida "Buyés" and "Dientes" cultivars. Bristol 1969


    borrachera de páramo: Common name (in Colombian Sibundoy Valley) for Desfontainia spinosa. Schultes 1977a

    borrachero: Spanish name used in Peru for Brugmansia sanguinea. Safford 1916a. Generic name applied to Brugmansia sanguinea subsp. vulcanicola Davis 1997. Brugmansia suaveolens (H. & B.) B.&P. Name used for Brugmansia aurea by the Macaguaje near the Rio Caqueta in Colombia.[Solanaceae] Kofán name for tree daturas (Brugmansia) Davis 1997

    borrachero: ("intoxicant") Name used for Iochroma fuchsioides (HBK) Miers [Solanaceae] in the Sibundoy Valley of Colombia; Schultes 1972c and Schultes 1983d. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited McKenna et al. 1986.

    borrachero: Name used in Ecuador for Ipomoea carnea [Convolvulaceae]. Schultes & Hofmann 1980. Folklore is suggestive of its use as a hallucinogen or an inebrient and its chemistry seems to support the possibility but no report of its actual use has been located.

    borracherushe: Common name used for Brugmansia candida "Buyés" cultivar. Bristol 1969

    boton caspi: Anthodiscus pilosus Ducke [Caryocaraceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited McKenna et al. 1986.

    bracaatinga: Common name used in Brazil for Mimosa scabrella; Barneby 1991 Apparently not yet reported as an ayahuasca admixture.

    bufeos : Freshwater dolphins. See yacruna. Luna 1984b.

    bui-ish: Alternate spelling of buyés. Bristol 1969 Brugmansia candida cv.

    bundleflower: Common name for Desmanthus illinoensis. burracheira: Effects of UdV hoasca. Shulgin & Shulgin 1997

    buyés: A Kamsá word meaning "water"

    buyés borrachera: Common name used in the Colombian Sibundoy Valley for Brugmansia candida "Buyés" and "Dientes" cultivars. This word is most frequently applied when they are speaking Spanish. A name used for Brugmansia species. Bristol 1969

    buyés borracherushe: Common name used for Brugmansia candida "Buyés" cultivar. Bristol 1969

    caapi-piníma: (Painted caapi; Caapi of color) is an unidentified admixture plant; its young shoots described by Spruce as shiny green with blood-red veins. The leaves of the plant were also noted as being stained and veined with red with only a small amount of its root being used. His suspicion it might be a Haemadictyon (Prestonia amazonica) has caused considerable confusion due to later readers who treated it as a positive identification. Its true identity remains undetermined beyond conjecture. Schultes 1973 and 1978. Name used for a drink used by Makú of the Rio Tiquie in Brazil. Luna 1986b. Schultes proposed it may represent Tetrapterys methystica but this saw neither subsequent investigation nor proof. See discussion elsewhere here.

    cabalonga blanca: Common name listed for a Thevetia sp. [Apocynaceae]. Rätsch 1998.

    cabrera: Common name in Venezuela- Columbia for Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir.; Barneby 1991. Modern use in ayahuasca analogs. Ancient use was as jurema.

    cacatao: Name used for Uncaria guianensis (Aubl.) Gmelin [Rubiaceae] by the Chácobo living at Alto Ivón, Beni, Bolivia. Boom 1987.

    caimitillo: Abuta grandifolia (Mart.) Sandwith [Menispermaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    cajé-uco: Tukano name for Diplopterys cabrerana. Schultes 1986a

    calun-calun: "soft" Common name for Virola elongata (by Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    camalonga : An unidentified seed (from Andes) used for shamanic purposes. Luna 1984b.

    camalongueros : Healing specialists (Peruvian mestizos) who use the seeds of camalonga for performing shamanic functions. Luna 1984b.

    camotillo: Montrichardia arborescens Schott. [Araceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    campa celeste: "Heaven's Bell" Popular name in Colombia for Datura. Ramírez de Jara 1986

    campanitas: Common name for Iochroma fuchsioides (HBK) Miers. [Solanaceae] Rätsch 1998

    canary-grass: Common name used for several Phalaris species. Name commonly applied to P. canariensis or, less often, P. aquatica. [Graminae]

    capinuri: Rudgea retifolia Standley [Rubiaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990.
    Common name for Rinorea viridiflora Rusby [Violaceae] Rätsch 1998

    capirona: Name for Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.) Hooker fil. ex Schumann [Rubiaceae] used in the Departmento de Loreto, Río Amazonas, Iquitos, Perú. Schultes 1977b. Name used locally for Calycophyllum spruceanum by Tikuna of Río Loretoyacu, Comisaría del Amazonas, Colombia; Schultes 1983c.

    capirona negra: Capirona decorticans Spruce [Rubiaceae] McKenna et al. 1986. Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    capirona negro: Name used for Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.) Hooker [Rubiaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    capullana Female leader in pre-Hispanic times. Named because of her hood or veil. Glass-Coffin 1998

    carahuasca: Name for Guatteria modesta Diels [Annonaceae] in Peruvian Amazon. Not known as an ayahuasca admixture. Used on its own as an oral contraceptive. Schultes 1983b.

    carbonal: Common name in Venezuela- Columbia for Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. [Leguminosae]; Barneby 1991. Numerous trees are known by this name. Probably reflects use for charcoal making. Modern use in ayahuasca analogs.

    cari: Apparently derived from the Quechua "kkhari" meaning "male" or "valiant, aggressive, energetic person" Bristol 1969

    cari borrachera: Common name (Inga word) for Brugmansia candida "Quinde" cultivar. Bristol 1969

    carrizo: Common name listed for Arundo donax [Graminae] Rätsch 1998

    catahua: Hura crepitans L. [Euphorbiaceae] Luna 1984a and Luna 1984b and McKenna et al. 1986. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    catawa: Ese'eja name for Hura crepitans (They use it medicinally but do not combine it with ayahuasca) Desmarchelier et al. 1996

    catsi: Culina name for Capsicum sp. [Solanaceae]

    caucho masham: Ese'eja name for Sapium marmieri (They use it medicinally but do not combine it with ayahuasca) Desmarchelier et al. 1996

    caupuri: Virola surinamensis (Roland) Warburg [Myristicaceae] Luna 1984a and Luna 1984b. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    cedro ajua: Common name for Virola pavonis (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    cedrorana: Cedrelinga catenaeformis Ducke [Leguminosae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    ceiba: Ceiba pentandra Gaertin. [Bombacaceae]

    ceneiwe: Waorani name for Himanthus sucuuba. Davis & Yost 1983b [All "e" have / through them: sounds like "a" in cat]

    cha: Name for Ayahuasca tea used by UdV. Shulgin & Shulgin 1997

    chacrona: Psychotria viridis leaf (Feminine half of the UdV sacrament). Callaway et al. 1999 and Shulgin & Shulgin 1997

    chacruna: Name used in Peru for the ayahuasca additive Diplopterys cabrerana; Ott 1994. Name applied to Banisteriopsis rusbyana (Intending to mean Diplopterys cabrerana) and to some of the Psychotria species. Rivier & Lindgren.
    Common name listed for Psychotria poeppigiana Rätsch 1998.
    Name used in Peru for Psychotria viridis Rivier & Lindgren 1972; McKenna et al. 1984; Ott 1995 and many others. Name listed for Psychotria viridis R. & P. [Rubiaceae]. Duke & Vasquez Martinez 1993.

    Psychotria viridis leaf (Feminine half of the UdV sacrament) Shulgin & Shulgin 1997
    Psychotria viridis (tentative ID by R.E. Schultes) as known by the Shibipo on the upper and middle Ucayali and also by town dewellers in Iquitos. Urzúa et al. 1972
    Psychotria viridis (Peruvian Mestizos) Luna 1984aRudgea retifolia Standley [Rubiaceae] Name used in Peru. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 citing Schultes & Raffauf 1990.Common name listed for Rinorea viridiflora Rusby [Violaceae] Rätsch 1998

    chà-dé-kê-na: Sabicea amazonensis Wernham [Rubiaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990.

    chagropanga azul pisco: Name given by Gates 1982 as a local name (in Colombia) for Diplopterys cabrerana.

    chagro-panga: (also given as chagro panga or chagropanga and other) Name used by near Tarapoto, Peru for Diplopterys cabrerana (Cutrecasa) Gates [as = Banisteriopsis rusbyana (Ndz.) Mort.] (Uncommon name in Peru; originally brought there from Rio Pastaza in Ecuador as live cutting) Greenhouse propagated clones showed identical analytical results; McKenna et al. 1984. Name used for B. rusbyana and B. longialata; Schultes 1957. Used by Kofán of Colombia and Ecuador for B. rusbyana; Der Marderosian et al. 1968. Name for B. rusbyana in the Comisaría del Putumayo in Amazonian Colombia; Schultes 1957. B. rusbyana is known by this name near Mocoa (its leaves are used with the bark of Banisteriopsis inebrians for preparing the drink yajé); Schultes 1957. Common name given on herbarium vouchers of B. rusbyana (Ndz.) Mort. collected in the Comisaría del Putumayo, Colombia; Bristol 1966. [All of the above mentions of B. rusbyana were probably in reference to Diplopterys cabrerana. See Gates 1982 monograph for complete details concerning the original misidentification and its rampant retellings.] Name given by Gates 1982 as a local name (in Colombia by the Inga) for Diplopterys cabrerana. Also given in Davis 1997

    chagrupanga: ("garden leaf") A Sibundoy term for Diplopterys cabrerana (derived from Quichua). Common name given on herbarium voucher of B. rusbyana (Ndz.) Mort. collected in the Sibundoy Valley, Comisaría del Putumayo, Colombia; Bristol 1966. [Misidentified? Probably in reference to Diplopterys cabrerana.]

    chalipanga: Diplopterys cabrerana (Cutrecasa) Gates

    chalua borrachero: Name encountered in the literature. Bristol feels this is in error and referred only to a stage of the plants development rather than being a common name. [Thought to be derived from the Quechua "ch'allu" meaning ripe] Bristol 1969

    chamisa: Anthodiscus pilosus Ducke [Caryocaraceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited McKenna et al. 1986.

    chanviro: Petiveria alliacea L. [Phytolaccaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    chicle: Malouetia tamaquarina (Aubl.) A.DC. [Apocynaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes 1979.

    chicorro: Cyperus digitatus Roxb. [Cyperaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited McKenna et al. 1986.

    chimite maikiwá: Brugmansia sanguinea [Solanaceae] (Red flowers) Fericgla 1994

    chipero: Name used for Calliandra angustifolia Spruce ex Bentham [Leguminosae] in Ecuador; Von Reis Altschul 1975.
    Name for Capirona decorticans Spruce [Leguminosae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    chiricaspi: Brunfelsia chiricaspi Plowman [Solanaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990. ("Fever-tree")
    Brunfelsia grandiflora D. Don [Solanaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes & Hofmann 1983.
    (Quichua) Common name (Siona) for Brunfelsia grandiflora D. Don subsp. schultesii Plowman [Solanaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984.
    Name also used for Stephanopodium peruvianum Poepp. & Endl. [Dichapetalaceae] [The latter plant has not been reported as an ayahuasca admixture.] Schultes 1983b.

    chiric sanango: Brunfelsia grandiflora D.Don var. schultesii Plowman [Solanaceae] McKenna et al. 1986. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b. [Both of the Peruvian species Brunfelsia latifolia and Brunfelsia maritima are also known as Chiric-sanango and similarly find their roots used as a medicine for rheumatism. von Reis Altschul 1975 ]

    chiricsanango: Brunfelsia chiricaspi Plowman [Solanaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990.
    Brunfelsia grandiflora D. Don [Solanaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes & Hofmann 1983.
    Ese'eja name for Brunfelsia grandiflora (They use it medicinally but do not combine it with ayahuasca) Desmarchelier et al. 1996

    chiri-huayusa: Name for a Brunfelsia sp. [Solanaceae] used by Quichua on the Río Napo; Pinkley 1969.

    chiripanga: Unidentified admixture. Thought to refer to a Brunfelsia species. Schultes 1986a

    chiriquiáspi: Shuar name for Brunfelsia grandiflora [Solanaceae]. Used as an admixture plant in ayahuasca. Fericgla 1997.

    chonta: Ese'eja name for Gynerium sagittarium (They use it medicinally but do not combine it with ayahuasca) Desmarchelier et al. 1996

    chontaruco borrachera: Common name (Inga word) for Brugmansia candida "Biangán" cultivar. Bristol 1969

    chuchuasca: Maytenus laevis Reiss. [= M. ebenifolia Reiss.] [Celastraceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    chuchuhuasca: Maytenus laevis Reiss. [= M. ebenifolia Reiss.] [Celastraceae] Schultes 1983b.

    chuchuhuasi: Maytenus laevis Reiss. [as = M. ebenifolia Reiss.] [Celastraceae] Luna 1984a and Luna 1984b.

    chuchuhuasi: Machiguenga name for Heisteria pallida Engl (Olaceae) They use its stem bark as a male aphrodisiac. Desmarchelier et al. 1996 cited Rutter 1990

    chuchura-caspi: Malouetia tamaquarina (Aubl.) DC [Apocynaceae].

    chullachaqui: Name applied to an important mythological being identified as "master of the animals", "king of the jungle" and in recent times used as a synonym for the devil. [During `Christianization', a key tactic is the malicious painting of the natural world as perverse and assigning it a demonic identity to associate any `old religions' (i.e. their perceived competition) with satanic practices. [Even the rain-forest itself, in Brazil, is known as the "Green Hell".    This deception is then used to justify wanton destruction and/or murder as acceptable "control" practices.]
    Said to often live in places where a Tovomita sp. grows. Luna 1984b.
    An Ese'eja name for the `devil' Desmarchelier et al. 1996. Name for the guardian spirit of the jungle. Vasquez 2000.

    chullachaqui caspi: Tovomita sp. [Clusiaceae] associated with chullachaqui. Luna 1984b. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    clavohuasca: Tynanthus panurensis (Bur.) Sandwith [Bignoniaceae] [Tentative identification.] Luna 1984b. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    cohoba: See under Anadenanthera words.

    coloradito: Common name in Colombia for Banisteriopsis heterostyla (Adr. Jussieu) Cuatrecasas. Gates 1982 Not reported to be used in ayahuasca preparation.

    conopa: Household gods. Glass-Coffin 1998

    copal: Not an admixture. Used as ritual fumigant. Resin of Hymenaea Courbaril L. Bristol 1966

    coro: Unidentified. Usually said to be a root. See word list under Anadenanthera. See cognates using `c' and `q' and `k' and `u'.

    cowode: "non-human" The Waorani name for outsiders. Davis & Yost 1983b

    cuchara-caspi : Name used Leticia area of Colombia for Malouetia tamaquarina (Aubl.) A.DC. [Apocynaceae]; Schultes & Raffauf 1986. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes 1979.

    cucu: Said to be in reference to "devil". The word kuku in Quechua means "fright" or "ghost". Bristol 1969

    cucu borrachera: Common name (Inga word) for Brugmansia candida "Amarón" cultivar. Bristol 1969

    cu-i-yoko : "White yoco" An ecotype of Paullinia yoco Schultes & Killip [Sapindaceae] recognized by the Kofán in Ecuador. Schultes 1980.

    culebra: Spanish word meaning "snake" Bristol 1969

    culebra borrachera (culebra borrachero): Common name (Spanish word) for Brugmansia candida "Culebra" cultivar. [Described by Schultes as Methysticodendron amesiana R.E. Schultes] Bristol 1969

    cují cabrera: Common name in Venezuela- Columbia for Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir.; Barneby 1991. Only modern use in ayahuasca analogs.

    cumala: Virola sp. Luna 1984b. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b. Name used in parts of Peru and in the Leticia area of Colombia for several species of Virola [Myristicaceae]. Schultes 1969b. Bora name for Virola and similar plants. Name used among the Bora (in Brillo Nuevo on the Rio Uaguasyacu) for the drug prepared from Virola resin. The term includes Virola calophylloidea Markgraf and Osteophloeum platyspermum (DC.) Warburg; neither of which was used by them for paste preparation. Schultes et al. 1977a.

    cumala blanca: Virola surinamensis (Rol.) Warburg Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.
    Not reported as ayahuasca admixture. Common name (Spanish) used to refer to Virola elongata (Benth.) Warburg Schultes et al. 1977a. Common name for Osteophloeum platyspermum (DC.) Warburg and several Iryanthera species. Schultes & Holmstedt 1971. [Osteophloeum platyspermum was reported by Holmstedt et al. 1980 to contain 0.00062% DMT/5-MeO-DMT in the bark. i.e. 620 mg per 100 grams]

    cumala colorada: Not reported as ayahuasca admixture. Common name used by the Bora to refer to Virola surinamensis (Rol.) Warburg Schultes et al. 1977a. Common name used for Iryanthera elliptica Ducke, Iryanthera juruensis Warburg, Iryanthera laevis Markgraf, Iryanthera lancifolia Ducke, Iryanthera paraensis Huber, Iryanthera tessmannii Markgraf, Iryanthera tricornis Ducke, Iryanthera ulei Warburg [Duke 1994 (p. 96)], Iryanthera longiflora [McKenna et al. 1984b], Osteophloeum platyspermum (DC) Warb. [Schultes & Holmstedt 1971].

    cumala roja: Not reported as ayahuasca admixture. Common name used in eastern Peru to refer to Dialyanthera parviflora Markgraf. Schultes & Holmstedt 1971.

    cumaseba: Common name for Caesalpinia echinata Lam. [Leguminosae] Rätsch 1998.

    cumaseba negra: Unidentified ayahuasca admixture used in Iquitos region. Luna 1984b

    curo: Euphorbia sp. [Euphorbiaceae]

    cuya cuya: Name listed for Juanulloa ochracea Cuatr. [Solanaceae] by Duke & Vasquez 1994).

    Daime: Santo Daime; "Doctrine of Santo Daime". A major ayahuasca based religion. Shulgin & Shulgin 1997

    daime: The drink as known by the Santo Daime. Shulgin & Shulgin 1997

    Daimistas: Members of Santo Daime faith. Shulgin & Shulgin 1997

    daño: Sorcery or intended harm arising from magic. Glass-Coffin 1998

    danta borrachera (danta borrachero): Common name (Inga word) for Brugmansia candida "Biangán" cultivar. Bristol 1969 Brugmansia insignis (B. -R.) Lockw. ex R.E. Schultes [Solanaceae]

    datura: The Siona use as an admixture to produce exceptional strength and rapid visions. Schultes felt this was probably Brugmansia suaveolens. Langdon 1986

    dayawiuo: "swamp uo" Common name (Secoya) for Abuta grandifolia (Mart.) Sandw. [Menispermaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    despachar: The act of orally spraying mesa objects using alcohol or Holy water to cleanse them of extracted energies. Glass-Coffin 1998

    devil's ear: Name listed for Psychotria poeppigiana Muell.-Arg. [Rubiaceae]. Duke & Vasquez Martinez 1993

    dóctor maikiwá: Brugmansia sanguinea[Solanaceae] (White flowers) Fericgla 1994

    Dogs: While this entry may be out of place here, it is worth noting that the Peruvian Matsigenka use over 30 species of plants to improve their dog's ability at tracking. In most cases, the drugs are forcibly administered into the nostrils of the animal accompanied by song. Some such as Brunfelsia or Juanulloa may leave the dog in a stupor for hours or days. Brugmansia is fed to puppies with raw meat and enables it to be an excellent hunter once it has recovered from the several day long coma that results. The Matsigenka believe that, like humans, "can maintain their hunting skills only by regularly partaking of narcotic plants in ritual settings." Shepard 1998

    doxké-mo-reri-dá: Unidentified admixture plant (vine); leaves used by the Tarianos of the Colombian Vaupés as an additive to ayahuasca Schultes 1972a citing Brüzzi 1962

    dsuiiteit-seperi: Kulina name for Lomariopsis japurensis (Mart.) J. Sm. [Dryopteridaceae] Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Pinkley 1969 spells dsuii teitseperi. Reported and vouched by Rivier and Rüff; Pinkley 1969. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Pinkley 1969

    duhtú: A kind of Xanthosoma recognized by the Tukano. Possible additive plant? Reichel-Dolmatoff 1972

    duxtú-sarnõ-dá: Unidentified ayahuasca admixture plant. Rätsch 1998

    ee'-taw-gaw: Name used by Makuna (of the middle Apaporis in Colombia) for Mezia includens (Benth.) Cuatrecasas [= Diplopterys involuta] [Malpighiaceae] Schultes 1975a

    embirana: Cavanillesia hylogeiton Ulb. [Bombacaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited McKenna et al. 1986.

    encantandos: Name used by the Atikum for the spirits encountered by using jurema. Silveira Barbosa 1998

    encanto: Spirit entity of a plant or huaca Glass-Coffin 1998

    e-pe-pee-yoo-wee: Name given by Gates 1982 as a local name (in Colombia among the Yukuna) for Banisteriopsis martiniana var. subenervia

    escalera de mono: Name listed for Bauhinia guianensis Aublet [Leguminosae] by Duke & Vasquez 1994.

    esh: Paez name for coca Davis 1997

    eyami tekua: "Protector of the people" Ese'eja name for a shaman. Desmarchelier et al. 1996

    falsa chacruna: Name applied to some Psychotria species. This is said to be determined by the lack of espinas on the underside of the leaves. Presence of this feature is said to be diagnostic of the active Psychotria species but the strongly positive analysis of a falsa chacruna by Urzúa indicates that more work is needed. See comments above under Psychotrias.

    feitio: Preparation ritual of Santo Daime. Shulgin & Shulgin 1997

    fendoko o'fa: Common name used by the Ecuadorian Kofán for Tournefortia angustiflora R. & P. [Boraginaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    fleur trompette: Name used in the French Antilles for Brugmansia suaveolens. Safford 1920

    flor de quinde: (hummingbird flower): A name used in southern Colombia and Ecuador for Iochroma fuchsioides Miers. Schultes 1983d. Believed to be hallucinogenic. Davis 1997

    flor de toé: Common name for Brugmansia suaveolens [Solanaceae] Rätsch 1998

    floripondio: Name given for Datura arborea Linnaeus (A Brugmansia?) Safford 1916a & 1916b [Safford 1921 notes that this is not synonymous with Datura arborea Ruiz & Pavon] Name given for Brugmansia candida in Safford 1921. [Safford 1921 states that Datura arborea Ruiz & Pavon is a synonym for Brugmansia candida Pers. and distinct from Brugmansia arborea Lagerh.] Common name (Spanish word) for Brugmansia candida "Buyés" and "Dientes" cultivars. Bristol 1969. Common name (Spanish) for Brugmansia x insignis (B. Rodr.) Lockwood [Solanaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984 Brugmansia suaveolens (H. & B.) B.&P. [Solanaceae]

    floripondio amarillo: Common name in Quito, Ecuador for Brugmansia aurea Lagerh. [Datura aurea (Lagerh.) Safford] Safford 1921

    floripondio blanco: Common name in Quito, Ecuador for Brugmansia arborea Lagerh. Safford 1921

    floripondio blanco: Common name used for Brugmansia candida "Buyés" cultivar. Bristol 1969

    floripondo : Name used for Datura arborea by Omagua near mouth of Rio Napo; Safford 1916.

    floripundo: Common name used for Brugmansia candida "Buyés" cultivar. Bristol 1969

    fuerza: "force" or "strength" Luna 1984a See in ayahuasca word list.

    fweroro: Sharanahua name for Ocimum micranthum Will. [Labiatae] Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Schultes 1972c cited Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Reported and vouched by Rivier and Rüff; Pinkley 1969.

    gachico: Erythrina fusca Lour. (= E. glauca Willd.) [Leguminosae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    ganadero: A herdsman or one who exerts dominance. Said to be someone who wins souls for the Devil. One name used for the left side of the mesa. Glass-Coffin 1998

    garabata: Guettarda ferox Standl. [Rubiaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    garabata: Uncaria guianensis (Aubl.) Gmelin [Rubiaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited McKenna et al. 1986.

    garabato : Unidentified ayahuasca admixture used in Iquitos region. Luna 1984b

    gigantón: Name used for Trichocereus pachanoi. Glass-Coffin 1998

    giimo: Waorani name for Capsicum chinense. Davis & Yost 1983b

    gõnõ ma'nya: "chicha perfume" Common name used by the Siona (Ecuador) for Ocimum micranthum Willd. [Labiatae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    grave plant: Name used in Peru for Brugmansia sanguinea. Safford 1920

    guamuca borrachera: Given as a common name used for Brugmansia sanguinea. Bristol 1969

    guamuco: Given as a common name used for Brugmansia sanguinea "Guamuco" and "Sangre" cultivars. Bristol 1969

    guamuco blanco: Common name (origin?) for Brugmansia candida "Buyés" and "Dientes" cultivars. Bristol 1969

    guamuco borrachera: Common name (origin?) for Brugmansia sanguinea "Guamuco" and "Sangre" cultivars. Bristol 1969

    guamuco floripundo: Common name (origin?) for Brugmansia sanguinea "Guamuco" and "Sangre" cultivars. Given elsewhere in article as a common name used for Brugmansia candida "Buyés" cultivar. Bristol 1969

    guandu: Common name for Brugmansia spp. (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    guanto: Name used by several groups in Ecuador for Brugmansia sp. [Solanaceae]; Schultes 1972c cited Schultes 1957. Pinkley 1969 mentions report of wood being used (unvouched); citing Schultes 1957

    guapa: Common name for Virola duckei [Also a generic name for the Myristicaceae] (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    guatillo: Iochroma fuchsoides (HBK.) Miers [Solanaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited McKenna et al. 1986.
    Spanish language name for Iochroma fuchsioides Miers. Schultes 1983d.

    guay-ee-ga-mó-yoo-ke-reé: ("tree of the gill of fishes") Makuna name (Amazonian Colombia) for a Malouetia species; probably Malouetia tamaquarina (Aubl.) A.DC. [Apocynaceae]; Schultes 1957 and Schultes 1986a.

    guayusa: Common name of Ilex guayusa Loesner [Aquifoliaceae]. Plotkin 1993 and Schultes 1979a.

    guiné : Name used for Petiveria alliacea L. [Phytolaccaceae] in market (Ver-o-Peso) in Belém, Brazil. van den Berg 1984.

    hanan: "Up" Refers to the right side of the mesa which contains objects linked to the sky such as images of saints. Glass-Coffin 1998

    hanan pacha: The upper-world associated with sky, light, male, fertile, extrinsic power and the right side. Opposite and complimentary to the other half of the duality called hurin pacha. Glass-Coffin 1998

    harding-grass: Common name for Phalaris aquatica var. stenoptera (= P. tuberosa var. stenoptera).

    hayo: coca leaves Davis 1997

    hekula: Spirits of the rocks and waterfalls contacted by the Waika through the use of snuffs. Schultes & Holmstedt 1968

    h-rog: Witoto name for Gustavia Poeppigiana Berg ex Martius; used as a source of ash for producing the basic `salt' used with Virola resin pellets. Schultes 1969b.

    hetu bisi: Common name used by the Ecuadorian Siona for Tournefortia angustiflora R. & P. [Boraginaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    hi(d)-yati(d)yahé: an unidentified ayahuasca plant or additive reportedly used by the Karihonas (Hianákoto-Umáua) of the headwaters of the Apaporis . Schultes 1957 Name used for B. caapi by Karijonas of the Rio Apaporis. Schultes 1986a

    hierba: "herb" Name applied to the San Pedro brew by some Peruvian curanderos. Glass-Coffin 1998

    hierbatero(a): Herbalist. Shaman(ess) who works with the spiritual forces of the natural world. Glass-Coffin 1998

    hi'é saipi bã): "plum-throated cotinga people" A group of the "heavenly people". See ma'timo bai. Vickers & Plowman 1984

    hiporuru: Alchornea castanaefolia (Willd.) Juss. [Euphorbiaceae] Luna 1984a and Luna 1984b. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    ho-ho-bo: Phrygilanthus eugenoides Eichler [Loranthaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Pinkley 1969. See ko-ho-bo

    hojé: Ficus insipida Will. [Moraceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    holdfast harding-grass: Common name for Phalaris aquatica var. stenoptera (= P. tuberosa var. stenoptera).

    hoo-roo': Gnetum nodiflorum Brongniart [Gnetaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990.

    horowa: Chacruna used by Piro of Rio Urubamba, Perú. Botanical identity is not clear. (DMT was not detected in the resulting drink) Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Often equated with Psychotria viridis, but there is serious doubt as to the validity of the assumption. (None encountered have included any references. Most are horticultural suppliers.)

    Hot Lips: Common name in Costa Rica for Psychotria poeppigiana. (From Missouri Botanical Garden website)

    hoyo: Machiguenga name for a Virola sp. Russo et al. 1996-1997

    huaca: Divine power associated with various deities. Often residing in natural places including celestial bodies, mountains, rivers, caves, lagoons, springs and odd rocks or plants. Literally meaning "manifestation of the sacred". Especially in coastal areas, this word is applied to shrines & manmade structures such as piles of rocks, adobe temples and tombs. Glass-Coffin 1998
    Word meaning "grave" (Peru) Safford 1920

    huacacachu: "grave plant" Name used in Peru for Brugmansia sanguinea. Safford 1916a & 1920

    huacapo: Vouacapoua americana Aubl. [Leguminosae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b. Also in Rätsch 1998.

    huacapú: Vouacapoua americana Aubl. [Leguminosae] Luna 1984b. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    huacapù: Common name for Vouacapoua americana Aubl. [Leguminosae] Rätsch 1998

    huacapurana : Witito name for the ayahuasca admixture Campsiandra laurifolia Bentham [Leguminosae] Also name used in Peru for Campsiandra angustifolia Spruce ex Bentham [Leguminosae] The latter of these two species has not been reported to be used in ayahuasca. Schultes 1980

    huachig caspi: "lance small tree" Common name for Osteophloem platyspermum, Virola duckei & Virola pavonis (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    huachuma: Name used for Trichocereus pachanoi. Glass-Coffin 1998

    huairacaspi: Cedrelinga catenaeformis Ducke [Leguminosae] Luna 1984b. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    hua'i yaje: Unidentified admixture plant. Bark of a shrub used by Secoya in Ecuador. (native and cultivated) Pinkley 1969.

    huanarpo: Ese'eja name for Jatropha macrantha (They use it medicinally but do not combine it with ayahuasca) Desmarchelier et al. 1996

    huanarpo macho: Common name (in Peru) for Jatropha macrantha (Considered to have aphrodisiac properties) Pizarro 1995

    Huancabamba: Name of a mountain town in northern Peru. Glass-Coffin 1998

    huánto: Name said to be used for ayahuasca in northwestern Brazil. Costa 1956 citing Reinberg 1921. Name is also used by several groups in Ecuador for Brugmansia sp. [Solanaceae]. Schultes 1972c cited Schultes 1957.

    huapa: Common name for Osteophloem platyspermum, Composoneura sprucei, Iryanthera juruensis, an unidentified Iryanthera species, Otoba glycycarpa, Otoba novogranatensis, Otoba parvifolia, Virola calophylla, Virola duckei, Virola elongata & Virola flexuosa [Generic name for the Myristicaceae] (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    huapa blanca: Common name for Virola duckei (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    huapa jandia: Common name for Virola calophylla (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    huapa urcu: Common name for Virola duckei (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    Huari: A autocthonous deity formerly venerated in Peru. Said to have been a cave dweller who belonged to a race of giants who were ancestors to beings that preceded humans. Symbolically linked with the "wet darkness of the underworld", with caves, darkness, water and with the fecund earth. Glass-Coffin 1998

    Huaringas: (Las Huaringas) A series of lagoons sacred to Peruvian shamans. Glass-Coffin 1998

    huarmi chacruna : ("women's mixture") A Psychotria species used as a specialized ayahuasca admixture. Ott 1995.

    hudidi: Common name used by the Siona in eastern Ecuador for Cyperus prolixus H.B.K. [Cyperaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    huhu nuni: Common name used by the Secoya in eastern Ecuador for Cyperus prolixus H.B.K. [Cyperaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    huito: Ficus insipida [Moraceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    hummingbird flower: A name used in southern Colombia and Ecuador for Iochroma fuchsioides Miers. Schultes 1983d.

    huo yui: Common name used by the Ecuadorian Siona for Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. [Bombacaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    hurin: "Down" Refers to left side of the mesa which contains materials collected from highland lagoons such as plants or objects from below the surface of the earth or from the bottom of the ocean. Glass-Coffin 1998

    hurin pacha: The underworld associated with earth, darkness, female, fecund, innate power and the left side. Also called ukhu pacha. Opposite and complimentary to the other half of the duality called hanan pacha. Glass-Coffin 1998

    hwandarao: Unidentified Acanthaceous plant used by the Sharanahua.

    iáhi: Said to be a liana mixed with natema by the Shuar but never used alone. Its identity was undetermined. Schultes 1957

    ibenkikis: Machiguenga name for one of the Cyperus species that they recognize. (Infested with Balansia.) Russo et al. 1996-1997

    ido: Waorani name for a shaman. Davis & Yost 1983a

    ihamaliva: "lord of the sloth" A hekula spirit recognized by the Waika according to Zerries. Schultes & Holmstedt 1968

    ila yura: "Ficus tree" Common name for Virola multinervia (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    Illinois bundleflower: Common name for Desmanthus illinoensis.

    ipadú: Common name listed for Erythroxylum coca var. ipadú [Erythroxylaceae] Rätsch 1998

    ipurosa: Alchornea castanaefolia (Willd.) Juss. [Euphorbiaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    ishpingo: Common name for a Quararibea sp. [Bombaceae] Rätsch 1998
    Unidentified ayahuasca admixture plant. Rätsch 1998. Seeds (not identified) that are incorporated into the "water of the fourteen spirits". Used ritually by some Peruvian curanderos. Glass-Coffin 1998

    itua: Gnetum nodiflorum Brongniart [Gnetaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990.

    irorovampashi pijuri: "Psychotria of the Bat" A Matsigenka name for Psychotria viridis. Shepard 1998

    ivenkiki: Matsigenka name for Cyperus species. Shepard 1998

    ivoro: Kulina name for Ocimum micranthum Will. [Labiatae] Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Also Schultes 1972c Reported and vouched by Rivier and Rüff; Pinkley 1969. Pinkley spelled iroro. Do not know which is correct.

    jacar: Verb used for magically caused harm effected by places thought to be "charmed" Noun form is jaco(a) Glass-Coffin 1998

    jayapa: Matsigenka name for Brugmansia Shepard 1998

    jénen-joni-rau: Unidentified ayahuasca admixture plant. Rätsch 1998

    jipijapa: Common name (Spanish) for Carludovica palmata R. & P. [Cyclanthaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    Jivaro: A derogatory name sometimes used to refer to the Shuar. Ott 1993 & 1996

    jugada: Manipulated or played; An act of sorcery. Glass-Coffin 1998

    jurema: Name used, in eastern Brazil, for Mimosa hostilis. Schultes 1972c cited Morais 1881. Also applied to certain other Leguminous plants; the extent is not clear. Common name used for Mimosa nigra J. Huber; Reported use for drink by Freise 1933, see de Moraes et al. 1990. Common name in Brazil for Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. (Mimosa hostilis); Barneby 1991. Ott 1996 mentions that the drink called by this name may be prepared from M. hostilis, M. nigra or M. verrucosa. Name used for Mimosa verrucosa Silveira Barbosa 1998

    jurema branca: Name used, in eastern Brazil, for Mimosa verrucosa. (Not known as an ayahuasca additive.) Roots are used to prepare a stupefying drink. Schultes 1972c cited Schultes 1970 and Schultes & Hofmann 1972 [See as Schultes & Hofmann 1980].

    Reported to be used by the for preparing jurema but nonhallucinogenic unless an MAOI was added. Silveira Barbosa 1998 (showed the oral activation of a M. verrucosa brew with Peganum harmala seeds).

    Da Mota 1991 gives as jurema blanca. Term used to refer to potential vinho da jurema admixtures such as Mimosa verrucosa, Acacia piauhyensis Benth and several Pithecolobium spp. Ott 1995 Only Pithecolobiums are known as traditional ayahuasca admixtures

    jurema negra: Name used, in eastern Brazil, for Mimosa hostilis but is also used by some tribes to refer to Mimosa verrucosa Silveira Barbosa 1998

    jurema pretâ: Name used, in eastern Brazil, for Mimosa hostilis, M. verrucosa Bentham and M. ophthalmocentra Martius ex Bentham. Barneby 1991 (Also Batista & Almeida 1997 for the last species). All three species are used for preparing the drink (See main Jurema entry for references)
    Not known as ayahuasca additives except for modern use of Mimosa hostilis in analogs

    juremeiro: Name for the person who prepares and serves jurema during the ritual. Silveira Barbosa 1998

    juri juri: Master of the machin runa (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    kaheé del chaman: One who can use this has capacity to be a shaman. Used for divination. Very dangerous intoxicant. Not identified; possibly D. cabrerana but uncertain. 1 of 6 classes of cají recognized by the Yebasama (Tucanos) of the Rio Paraparaná in the Colombian Vaupés. Schultes 1986a

    ka-hee-ko: Name given by Gates 1982 as a local name (in Colombia by the Karaparaná) for Diplopterys cabrerana.

    kahi-uko: "Caapi del agua" One of 2 classes of caapi recognized by the Barasana-Makú that corresponds to Diplopterys cabrerana. [Rio Castaño, an affluent of the Rio Piraparaná] Schultes 1986a

    kairia: Stygmaphyllon fulgens (Lam.) A.Jussieu [Malpighiaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990.

    Kamsá: Native language spoken by the Sibundoy. Bristol 1969

    kana: Sabicea amazonensis Wernham [Rubiaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990.

    kanahyeh: Yanomamo name for Triplaris surinamensis. [Polygonaceae] Plotkin 1993

    kana-puri: Unidentified admixture plant (vine); crushed leaves used by the Tarianos of the Colombian Vaupés as an additive to ayahuasca Schultes 1972a citing Brüzzi 1962

    kaokirontsi: "eye drops" (Most commonly these are Psychotria or Rudgea species although a number of plants from other families are also used)
    Plants which are administered as painful eye drops. Used to dispel ghostly apparitions, bad dreams, anger, sadness, and other disruptive emotional or psychological states. Shepard 1998

    kapok: Common name for Ecuadorian Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. [Bombacaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    kashi muna: Common name for Capirona decorticans Spruce [Rubiaceae] Rätsch 1998

    katirigitobenki: Machiguenga name for one of the Cyperus species that they recognize. (Infested with Balansia cyperi fungus.) Russo et al. 1996-1997

    katsi: "pain" Used by the Matsigenka to gauge how good tobacco is (and also other medicines). Shepard 1998

    kawa: The Sharanahua name for the Psychotria species that the Culina call appane (Psychotria viridis). Reported and vouched by Rivier and Rüff; Pinkley 1969. Also, the name used for a Psychotria sp. used by the Cashinahua in southeastern Peru that was collected by Kensinger. 5 or 6 `varieties' are recognized by the Cashinahua.

    kawa (and Rami appane) are translated (in Peru) as Chacruna. Rivier & Lindgren 1972

    kawa kui : Psychotria viridis; one of two Psychotrias used by the Sharanahua near Marcos, Peru. (Another name is pishikawa). Rivier & Lindgren 1972
    Sharanahua name for a recognized variety of Psychotria viridis. Reported and vouched by Rivier and Rüff; Pinkley 1969. (aka pishikawa) Psychotria sp. 2 [Rubiaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990.

    kaxpi-puri: Unidentified admixture plant (vine); crushed leaves used by the Tarianos of the Colombian Vaupés as an additive to ayahuasca Schultes 1972a citing Brüzzi 1962

    kay pacha: This world. World of human relations and discourse. World where celestial and chthonic forces interact to create life. Glass-Coffin 1998

    kemishitsa: Machiguenga name for a Stelis sp. (tentative identification) [Orchidaceae] Russo et al. 1996-1997

    kepigari: Matsigenka word meaning "intoxicating" or "intoxicant" or "that which makes one intoxicated". Also used for refer to a category of illness including "bouts of dizziness, fainting, nausea and vomiting as well as insanity"
    Also a Matsigenka name for a Cyperus species (a sedge) that can cause temporary insanity if used improperly Shepard 1998

    kepigarienga: Matsigenka word meaning "intoxicating odor" Shepard 1998

    kepishiri: Matsigenka word meaning "bitter" Shepard 1998

    ki-ria: Stygmaphyllon fulgens (Lam.) A.Jussieu [Malpighiaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990.

    killer phalaris: A strain of Phalaris aquatica (cv. Uneta) now cultivated specifically for its high DMT content. Often mistakenly presented and sold as Phalaris arundinacea. Not known as a traditional ayahuasca additive but its foliage is successfully used for this purpose in modern times due to the DMT content. Nickname "killer" arose from the occurrence of its parents being linked with a high incidence of sheep fatalities. (i.e. cv. Uneta was derived from cv. Australian)

    ko'do: Raw paste resulting from Bora Virola resin extraction. Schultes et al. 1977a

    ko-de-ko: Common name used by the Bora to refer to Virola elongata (Benth.) Warburg. Thought to be generic term for Virola Schultes et al. 1977a.

    kosharishi: Machiguenga name for a Codonanthopsis sp. [Gesneriaceae] Russo et al. 1996-1997

    ko-ho-bo: (kohobo) Name used by Culina for Phrygilanthus eugenioides (HBK) Eichler [Loranthaceae] Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Reported and vouched by Rivier and Rüff; Pinkley 1969.

    kõnõ ma'nya: "chicha perfume" Common name used by the Secoya (Ecuador) for Ocimum micranthum Willd. [Labiatae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    kopal: Not an admixture. Used as ritual fumigant. Resin of Hymenaea Courbaril L. Bristol 1966

    koti-kana-ma: Sabicea amazonensis Wernham [Rubiaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990.

    kovengani: Matsigenka word meaning "awe inspiring" Shepard 1998

    kshi muna: Capirona decorticans Spruce [Rubiaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    kuétan ch'ijmé: Pure white alkali prepared by the Paez from a black limestone. Davis 1997

    kuétan kútchi: Said to be the "sweetest and most effective" alkali prepared by the Paez from a dark reddish limestone. Davis 1997

    kuétan yáha: Bags which Paez carry coca leaves in. Davis 1997

    kuhidiliwa: "lord of the [An undentified bird.]"A hekula spirit recognized by the Waika according to Zerries Schultes & Holmstedt 1968

    kurru: Bora name for the orally active resin prepared from Virola exudate. Schultes 1969b.

    kurú: Siona name for Otoba parvifolia (Markgraf) A. Gentry [Myristicaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    kushinap: Common name listed for Herrania sp. [Sterculiaceae] Rätsch 1998

    kutru: Muinaves (in the Leticia region of Colombia)name for the orally active resin prepared from Virola exudate. Schultes 1969b.

    kutrucu: Muinaves (in the Leticia region of Colombia) name for the Virola species they use to prepare an orally active resin. Schultes 1969b.

    labios de puta: ("whore's lips") Common name in Costa Rica for Psychotria poeppigiana. (From Missouri Botanical Garden website)

    large canarygrass: Phalaris aquatica L. [Graminae]

    lengua de tigre: Common name (Spanish word) for Brugmansia candida "Culebra" cultivar. [AKA Methysticodendron amesiana R.E. Schultes] Bristol 1969

    le-sa: Witoto name for basic residue (salt) obtained from leached ashes. Schultes 1969b.

    Light (The Light; La Luz): Psychotria viridis leaf (Feminine half of the UdV sacrament). Shulgin & Shulgin 1997

    limpia: A cleansing or purification using mesa objects or staffs to rub people with an up and down motion. Glass-Coffin 1998

    llacuaz: Name for an outsider or invader. Applied to class of deities associated with the "upper world" Glass-Coffin 1998

    llacuaz ayllu: Mythological ancestors of the ayllu. The founder was said to have come from a distant place and conquered the descendants of the god Huari (the original inhabitants) Associated with maleness, fertility and conquest. Glass-Coffin 1998

    llauta caspi: Common name for Osteophloem platyspermum (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    lopuna [SP? lupuna?]: Chorisia insignis Rätsch 1998

    lupuna: Ceiba pentandra Gaertin. [Bombacaceae] [Tentative identification.] Luna 1984b. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.
    Chorisia speciosa McKenna et al. 1986
    Common name listed for Trichilia tocacheana DC. [Meliaceae] Rätsch 1998

    Luz (La Luz: The Light): Psychotria viridis leaf (Feminine half of the UdV sacrament). Shulgin & Shulgin 1997

    machin cara yura: ("Capuchin monkey bark tree") Common name for Osteophloem platyspermum (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    machin runa: The "monkey people" (Runa believe that monkey have human souls) (in Ecuador) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    macuira: An unidentified plant, said to be similar to tobacco, leaves chewed for inducing a trance for divination among the Guajiro in northeastern Colombia. Uscategui 1959 cited Pineda 1947.

    maestro(a): A shaman. Meaning teacher of master. May be a man or woman. Glass-Coffin 1998

    maicoma: Name for Brugmansia species used by Shuar in Ecuador. Schultes 1986

    maikiwá: Brugmansia species. [Solanaceae] General name used by Shuar. Fericgla 1994

    maikoa: A Brugmansia sp. used as admixture by Shuar in Ecuador. Ott 1994 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990. Also given in Schultes 1986.

    ma-kaxpi-dá: Unidentified admixture plant used by the Tarianos of the Colombian Vaupés to make ayahuasca "more virulent". Schultes 1972a

    mallqui: Mummy bundles that were cared for and venerated by their descendents. Also indicating an ancestral spirit. Glass-Coffin 1998

    máma maikiwá: Shuar name for Brugmansia aurea Lagerh. [Solanaceae] Fericgla 1994

    mambe: Balls of lime prepared from limestone. Davis 1997

    mamperikipini: Machiguenga name for Fittonia albivenis [Acanthacaceae] Russo et al. 1996-1997

    manacá : Brunfelsia uniflora (Pohl.) Don. Used as occasional admixture to vinho da jurema. Ott 1995 [Not reported as an ayahuasca admixture.] Also name used for Brunfelsia hopeana Benth. Juice is used in preparation of curupá by the Cambébas. Wassen 1967.

    mangericão: Name used for Ocimum micranthum Will. [Labiatae] in market (Ver-o-Peso) in Belém, Brazil. van den Berg 1984.

    mapacho: Nicotiana tabacum L. [Solanaceae] Used in Iquitos area for a tobacco variety. Luna 1984b. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Pinkley 1969.

    marosa: Pfaffia iresinoides. [Amaranthaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Tournon & Reategui 1984.

    mashonaste: Ese'eja name for Batocarpus amazonicus (They use it medicinally but do not combine it with ayahuasca) Desmarchelier et al. 1996

    matico: Ese'eja name for Piper angustifolium (They use it medicinally but do not combine it with ayahuasca) Desmarchelier et al. 1996

    ma'ti mo bai: "the heavenly people" associated with B. caapi/ D. cabrerana. See also oprito. Vickers & Plowman 1984

    matsi kawa: Psychotria leaf used by Cashinahua; found to contain no alkaloid. Ott 1994
    A Psychotria species used by the Cashinahua of eastern Peru and Western Brazil Der Marderosian et al. 1969

    me-ne-ka-heé-ma: ("Vine of ka'heé") The species other than B. caapi when two species are used (Barasana). Schultes feels this is B. rusbyana (i.e meaning Diplopterys cabrerana) . The leaves or bark or both of the latter are used but only the rasped bark of B. caapi is used; Schultes 1957. See also méné-cají-má in the MAOI source common name list.

    mené kahi ma: Name given by Gates 1982 as a local name (in Colombia) for Diplopterys cabrerana. Name used for a `variety' of yagé recognized by the Barasana of Rio Piraparaná in Colombian Comisaria del Vaupés. (Sterile material identified as B. rusbyana.) Schultes 1972a citing material submitted as vouchers; from Hugh-Jones.

    mesa: The curing altar of Peruvian shamans. Literally "table" Glass-Coffin 1998

    míkiut maikiwá: Name used by Shuar for Brugmansia suaveolens [Solanaceae] Said to be used only during campaigns of warfare or in extreme emergencies. Fericgla 1994

    millo renaquilla: Unidentified ayahuasca admixture used in Iquitos region. Luna 1984b

    misha: Word meaning multicolored. Name applied to Datura and Brugmansia Glass-Coffin 1998

    mito: "tobacco" A common name (Siona) for Nicotiana tabacum L. [Solanaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    mits-kway borrachero : "intoxicant of the jaguar" Narcotic prepared directly from leaves of Methysticodendron amesianum by Inga and Kofán of the Sibundoy Valley in Colombia. Wassen 1967. No report as ayahuasca additive.

    miya: Sharanahua name for a Clusia sp. [Guttiferae] Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Pinkley 1969.

    miya: Name used by the Sharanahua for Phrygilanthus eugenioides Eichler [Loranthaceae] Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Reported and vouched by Rivier and Rüff; Pinkley 1969. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Pinkley 1969.

    monkey ladder: Name listed for Bauhinia guianensis Aublet [Leguminosae] Duke & Vasquez 1994.

    mtzkway borrachera: Common name for Brugmansia candida "Culebra" cultivar. [Described by Schultes as Methysticodendron amesiana R.E. Schultes] Bristol 1969

    muchípu-gahpí-dá: Unidentified plant. Rätsch 1998. See in MAOI source list.

    muckra: Petiveria alliacea L. [Phytolaccaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    mucura: Petiveria alliacea L. [Phytolaccaceae] Luna 1984b. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.
    Ese'eja name for Petiveria alliacea (They use it medicinally but do not combine it with ayahuasca) Desmarchelier et al. 1996

    mucura-caá: Name used for Petiveria alliacea L. [Phytolaccaceae] in market (Ver-o-Peso) in Belém, Brazil. van den Berg 1984.

    muhu pehí: "thunder Brugmansia " Common name (Siona) for Brugmansia x insignis (B. Rodr.) Lockwood [Solanaceae] [Specimen not collected.] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    muku yaska: Unidentified plant. Rätsch 1998. See in MAOI source list.

    munchira: Common name (Inga word) for Brugmansia candida "Munchira" cultivar. Common name included for Brugmansia candida "Quinde" cultivar in the listing of herbarium vouchers submitted. Bristol 1969

    munchira borrachera: Common name (Inga word) for Brugmansia candida "Munchira" cultivar. "Munchira" is an Inga word for "caterpillar' and alludes to the leaves which naturally appear to have been eaten by caterpillars. Bristol 1969

    munchira borrachera: One of the two most toxic Brugmansia candida cultivars grown by the Sibundoy. Bristol 1969

    mureré: Unidentified ayahuasca admixture used in Iquitos region. Luna 1984b
    Common name for Cabomba aquatica Aubl. [Nymphaeaceae] Rätsch 1998

    murere mureru: Cabomba aquatica Aubl. [Nymphaeaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    mureru: Cabomba aquatica Aubl. [Nymphaeaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    muraya: An advanced level of awareness experienced by native indigenous shamans (Shipibo) who have followed the prescribed diet and made contact with the "Mother" or essence of the plant teachers. A practioner at this level no longer requires the ingestion of ayahuasca or other plantas maestros to make contact with the essences of the plants and have visionary experiences but rather can do so directly through the singing of icaros. The attainment of this state seems to be lacking in the belief system of Mestizo shamans who continue to use ayahuasca throughout their lives. Bianchi & Samorini 1993.

    murraya: Spirits which help ayahuasca using shaman (Peruvian mestizos). Luna 1984b.

    mutscuai: Kamsá word meaning "snake" Bristol 1969

    mutscuai borrachera: Common name for Brugmansia candida "Culebra" cultivar. [Described by Schultes as Methysticodendron amesiana R.E. Schultes] Bristol 1969

    nacedero: A name used in southern Colombia and Ecuador for Iochroma fuchsioides Miers. Schultes 1983d.

    na-ka-te-pê: Juanulloa ochracea Cuatr. [Solanaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes 1979.

    nai kawa : A Psychotria species [Rubiaceae] used by the Cashinahua of eastern Peru and Western Brazil [DMT isolated ] Der Marderosian et al. 1969
    A DMT containing Psychotria leaf admixture used by the Cashinahua; thought variously to be P. alba, P. carthaginensis, P. horizontalis or P. marginatus. Clarification is needed. Ott 1994. See also nai pai in the MAOI source common name list.

    na'nyame nuni: "rainbow nuni" Common name used by the Secoya in eastern Ecuador for Cyperus prolixus H.B.K. [Cyperaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    ne'e horo: "Mauritia flower" Common name used by Siona in eastern Ecuador forCarludovica palmata R. & P. [Cyclanthaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    nenendape: Waorani name for a species of Dictyonema (a basidiomycete) that was once used as hallucinogen involved in sorcery. It was used as an infusion with species of Bryophyta known as kigiwai. Davis & Yost 1983a [All "e" have / through them: sounds like "a" in cat]

    ngunsiana: Inga word meaning "hummingbird". Bristol 1969

    ngunsiana borrachera: Common name (Kamsá word) for Brugmansia candida "Quinde" cultivar. Bristol 1969

    nishipara: Name used for Bauhinia guianensis Aubl. [Leguminosae] by the Chácobo living at Alto Ivón, Beni, Bolivia. Boom 1987.

    nopenatakero: Smoked tobacco (Matsigenka) Shepard 1998

    nuchu pichana: Name used for Scoparia dulcis L. [Scrophulariaceae]

    nucleos: Communities within the Daime church. Also used to refer to the churches within the UdV. Shulgin & Shulgin 1997

    nuni: Common name used by the Secoya in eastern Ecuador for Cyperus articulatus L. and another Cyperus sp. [Cyperaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    nyoko-buku-guda-hubea-ma: ("Inga yagé, the vine that came inside the jurupary instrument called `old star'.") "la parra contenida en el instrumento juruparí conocido como `estrella antigua'". Name used for a `variety' of yagé recognized by the Barasana of Rio Piraparaná in Colombian Comisaria del Vaupés [Schultes 1986a: Barasana-Makú; Rio Castaño]. (Sterile material identified as a (Diplopterys cabrerana.) Schultes 1972a citing voucher material from Hugh-Jones. Name given by Gates 1982 as a local name (in Colombia by the Barasana) for Diplopterys cabrerana.

    oani: Liquid tobacco drunk by the Matsigenka Shepard 1998

    oco yagé: Common name given on herbarium voucher of B. rusbyana (meaning Diplopterys cabrerana) (Ndz.) Mort. collected in the Comisaría del Putumayo: Umbría, Colombia. Bristol 1966. Name given by Gates 1982 as a local name (in Colombia) for Diplopterys cabrerana. See also yahé'okó

    oco-yajé: ("water yajé") Tukano name for Diplopterys cabrerana. Ott 1994 and Schultes 1986a. In Western Amazon and Ecuador = Diplopterys cabrerana (Cutrecasa) Gates. Name for B. rusbyana (meaning D. cabrerana) in the Comisaría del Putumayo in Amazonian Colombia. B. longialata is also known by this name. Schultes 1957 Used by Kofán of Colombia and Ecuador for B. rusbyana. Der Marderosian et al. 1968 and Pinkley 1969. Name for Diplopterys cabrerana (Cuatr.) B.Gates [Malpighiaceae] in westernmost Amazon: leaves used as admixture; Schultes 1972a and Schultes 1972c.

    ojé: Ficus sp. taken by itself and considered a powerful plant teacher by Peruvian Mestizos. Luna 1984a. Name used for Ficus ruiziana Standl. and Ficus insipida Willd.
    Ese'eja name for Ficus insipida (They use it medicinally but do not combine it with ayahuasca) Desmarchelier et al. 1996

    oko yáje: Name used by Kofán in eastern Ecuador and Colombia for Diplopterys cabrerana. (Use both native and cultivated plants) Pinkley 1969

    oko yoko: Siona name for Paullinia bracteosa Radik. [Sapindaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984 Not reported from ayahuasca?

    õkwe yoko: "sucking Paullinia " Siona name for Paullinia bracteosa Radik. [Sapindaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    oo'-koey: An orally ingested paste prepared from a Virola . Collected at La Chorrera.

    oo-koo'-h: Witoto name for orally active pellets prepared from Virola resin. Schultes 1969b. ["e" has small u-shaped inflection mark.]

    oo-koo'-na: Witoto name for a species of Virola (probably V. theiodora) [Myristicaceae] in the Rio Karaparaná. Used to produce an orally active resin. Schultes 1969b. Witoto name for Virola elongata and Virola surinamensis (Schultes suspected the last was in error); Schultes et al. 1977a.
    Name used for Virola (Witoto name in Colombia and Peru) Holmstedt et al. 1980

    oo'-me: Basic "salt" used by the Bora to coat Virola resin pellets. Schultes et al. 1977a

    opane: Tobacco snuff used by the Matsigenka. Shepard 1998

    opatsa: Tobacco that is chewed in a quid by the Matsigenka Shepard 1998

    opatsa seri: Tobacco & Banisteriopsis paste used orally by the Peruvian Matsigenka. Shepard 1998

    oprito: Kofán name (eastern Ecuador) for Psychotria viridis R. & P. They also use this name for the "heavenly people" which they see while under its influence (as a yáje component) Pinkley 1969

    o-pri-to: Name used for Psychotria psychotriaefolia (later corrected as Psychotria viridis) by the Kofáns. Schultes 1969

    oracionistas: Healing specialists (Peruvian mestizos) who employ only prayer for performing shamanic functions. Luna 1984b.

    oreja del diablo: Name listed for Psychotria poeppigiana Muell.-Arg. [Rubiaceae]. Duke & Vasquez Martinez 1993

    oropel: Erythrina poeppigiana (Walp.) O.F. Cook [Leguminosae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna n.d..

    orovampashi: The Urubamba Psychotria leaf as known by the Matsigenka along the Manu River. Shepard 1998

    orovampashi-sano: "True Psychotria" Matsigenka name for their preferred Psychotria species said to give "good" visions of happy, dancing people. Shepard 1998

    oshetopari: "spider monkey root" Matsigenka name for a Brunfelsia species. Shepard 1998

    oshetoshi: Machiguenga name for a Drymonia sp. [Gesneriaceae] Russo et al. 1996-1997

    oshinkirine: Matsigenka word meaning "sacred intoxication" Shepard 1998

    ovuroki: Matsigenka word meaning "manioc beer" Shepard 1998

    padrinhos: Leaders within the units (Santo Daime) Shulgin & Shulgin 1997

    pago: Ritual offering or payment. Glass-Coffin 1998

    paguando: Iochroma fuchsoides (HBK.) Miers [Solanaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited McKenna et al. 1986.

    pájaro arbol: Name used for Alchornea castaneifolia (Willd.) Juss. [Euphorbiaceae] (Alchornea castanaefolia ) by Spanish speakers in the region of the Rio Loretoyacu, Comisaría del Amazonas, Colombia; Schultes & Raffauf 1986. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    pakitsa: Matsigenka name for the harpy eagle (considered the ultimate hunter) Shepard 1998

    pakitsapari: "eagle root" Matsigenka name for a Brunfelsia species. Shepard 1998

    paku yahi: "Colossoma [a fish] yahi" Siona name for Allophylus floribundus Radik. [Sapindaceae] Name indicates that the berries of this tree are to this fish as the berries of the Moraceous Pseudolmoedia laevis are to humans. Vickers & Plowman 1984 Not reported in ayahuasca.

    palero: A vegetalista who has followed the prescribed diet and used tree derived drugs stronger than ayahuasca. Luna 1984b.

    palisangre: Unidentified ayahuasca admixture used in Iquitos region. Luna 1984b

    palisangre: Sclerobium setiferum Ducke [Leguminosae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited McKenna et al. 1986.

    palisanto: Sclerobium setiferum Ducke [Leguminosae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited McKenna et al. 1986.

    palo mulato: Capirona decorticans Spruce [Rubiaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.
    Common name for Chorisia insignis [Bombaceae] Rätsch 1998
    Also name used locally for Calycophyllum spruceanum by Tikuna of Río Loretoyacu, Comisaría del Amazonas, Colombia; Schultes 1983c.

    Panama hat plant: Common name (English) for Carludovica palmata R. & P. [Cyclanthaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    panguana: Spanish language name for Iochroma fuchsioides Miers. Schultes 1983d.

    pan-mulato: Name given for Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.) Hooker fil. ex Schumann [Rubiaceae] in the Río de Janeiro Botanical Garden.

    paracaatinga: Common name used in Brazil for Mimosa scabrella; Barneby 1991. Not yet reported to be bioassayed as an ayahuasca analog admixture but a potential source.

    para-para: Unidentified ayahuasca admixture plant. Rätsch 1998

    parápra: Shuar name used either for Rinorea viridiflora? (Fericgla 1997) or for an unclear Malpighiaceous plant. Used as an admixture plant in ayahuasca. [Used as DMT admixture plant?] Fericgla 1994.

    pashaquillo: Pithecolobium laetum Poepp. & Endl. [Leguminosae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    pastora: Name given by Gates 1982 as a local name (in El Salvador) for Banisteriopsis muricata

    pee-ye-ee-pa-a: Bora name for an epiphytic species of Carludovica [Cyclanthaeae] the stump and leaves of which are burned to produce a basic ash which is then leached with water to extract a basic "salt". Schultes et al. 1977a

    pehí: Common name (Secoya ) for Brugmansia x insignis (B. Rodr.) Lockwood [Solanaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    peji : Believed to be a Datura (Brugmansia?) species used by the Siona in the Colombian Putumayo. Pinkley 1969 cited Schultes 1957.
    Brugmansia sp. [Solanaceae] Leaves added by some groups in southern Colombia and Ecuador. Schultes 1972c cited Schultes 1957.

    pichana: Ocimum micranthum Will. [Labiatae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Pinkley 1969.

    picho e mula: Name listed for Psychotria poeppigiana Muell.-Arg. [Rubiaceae]. Duke & Vasquez Martinez 1993

    picurullana-quina: Alternanthera lehmanii Hieronymus [Amaranthaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Garcia-Barriga 1958.

    piheri: A common name (Secoya) for Rinorea viridiflora Rusby [Violaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    piripiri: Quichua word used to refer to Cyperus articulatus L. [and other Cyperus spp.]. Vickers & Plowman 1984

    piri-piri: Peruvian name for Cyperus spp. (cultivated) [Cyperaceae] Name also used by Shuar (Jivaro) of Amazonian Ecuador. Plotkin 1993. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Pinkley 1969.

    pishco isma colorado: Name listed for Juanulloa ochracea Cuatr. [Solanaceae] by Duke & Vasquez 1994.

    pishikawa: One of two Psychotrias [Rubiaceae] used by the Sharanahua. (Another name is Kawa kui). Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990.

    platanote: Himatanthus sucuuba (Spr. ex M. -A.) Woodson [Apocynaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    poi-fa-ko' : Name used for Calliandra angustifolia Spruce ex Bentham [Leguminosae] by Kofán in Ecuador and Colombia. Schultes 1983c. They are said to cultivate it only as an ornamental.

    pokere: Sharanahua name for Epiphyllum sp. [Cactaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Pinkley 1969.

    pom-ka': Name used by Puinaves of Colombia for Malouetia tamaquarina (Aubl.) A.DC. [Apocynaceae]; Schultes & Raffauf 1986.

    pompori: Large snail shells that the Matsigenka store tobacco snuff in. Shepard 1998

    potshesheti: Unidentified Bignonaceous plant used by the Sharanahua. Rivier & Lindgren

    prairie bundleflower: Common name for Desmanthus leptolobus.

    prairie mimosa: Common name for Desmanthus illinoensis. Also applied to Desmanthus leptolobus and Acacia angustissima.

    preparo: Preparation ritual of UdV. Shulgin & Shulgin 1997

    protector of the people: Ese'eja name for a shaman. Desmarchelier et al. 1996

    Psychotria of the bat: "irorovampashi pijuri" A Matsigenka name for Psychotria viridis. Shepard 1998

    puca: Quichua word meaning "red" (Peru) Safford 1920

    puca campancho: Name used at Ollantaytambo, Peru for Brugmansia sanguinea. Safford 1920

    puca lupuna: Cavanillesia hylogeiton Ulb. [Bombacaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited McKenna et al. 1986.

    puca lupuna: Unidentified ayahuasca admixture used in Iquitos region. Luna 1984b

    pucara: the name of a community huaca appearing in a 17th century account of a witchcraft trial. Glass-Coffin 1998

    pucuna: Quichua word meaning "blowgun".

    pucuna huapa: Common name for Iryanthera juruensis, Virola calophylla, Virola duckei, Virola elongata, Virola flexuosa, Virola pavonis & 2 unidentified Virola species [Generic name for the Myristicaceae] (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    pukara: Sharanahua name for Epiphyllum sp. [Cactaceae] Rivier & Lindgren 1972.

    pulma: Name used for Calathea veitchiana Veitch ex Hooker f. [Marantaceae] by Chiriare on Rio Nanay (Amazonian Peru); Schultes 1972c and Schultes 1983b and Schultes 1983c. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes 1983.

    puliu huapa: Common name for Virola pavonis (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    punya-sisa: Kechwa name used in Ecuador for Mimosa pudica Linnaeus. [Leguminosae] Used medicinally but not reported as ayahuasca admixture. Schultes 1983c.

    Queen (La Rainha): Psychotria viridis leaf as known by the Santo Daime. Shulgin & Shulgin 1997

    quinde: Common name (Inga word) for Brugmansia candida "Quinde" cultivar. Bristol 1969

    quinde: Kamsá word meaning "hummingbird". Bristol 1969

    quinde borrachera: Common name (Inga word) for Brugmansia candida "Quinde" cultivar. Bristol 1969

    quinilla blanca: Capirona decorticans Spruce [Leguminosae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.
    Common name listed for Calliandra angustifolia Spr. ex. Benth. [Leguminosae] Rätsch 1998

    Rainha (La Rainha; The Queen): Psychotria viridis leaf as known by the Santo Daime. (Leaves are handled only by women) Shulgin & Shulgin 1997

    rami: Name used the Culina for Lygodium venustum Swartz. [Schizaeaceae] Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Reported and vouched by Rivier and Rüff; Pinkley 1969. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Pinkley 1969.

    rami appane: Culina name for Psychotria carthaginensis Jacq. [Rubiaceae]. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Pinkley 1969. Also Culina name for Psychotria viridis. Recognized as different but not differentiated by name. Both were reported and vouched by Rivier and Rüff; Pinkley 1969.
    Name used for either of the two Psychotrias known by the Culina. Translated (in Peru) as Chacruna. Rivier & Lindgren 1972 Name for a Psychotria species used by the Sharanahua in Peru. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990.

    rani appani: Culina name; Zapote, Peru for Psychotria carthaginensis. Rivier & Lindgren 1972

    raya balsa: Montrichardia arborescens Schott. [Araceae] Luna 1984a and Luna 1984b. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    reed canary grass: Common name for Phalaris arundinacea. [Note for computer searches; name is encountered in the literature as Reed-canarygrass, Reed canarygrass, Reed canary-grass and Reed canary grass. Capitalization also varies.]

    ree-ko-pa: Common name for Juanulloa ochracea Cuatr. [Solanaceae] Rätsch 1998

    remo caspi: Pithecolobium laetum Poepp. & Endl. [Leguminosae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    remo caspi: Ese'eja name for Aspidosperma excelsa (They use it medicinally but do not combine it with ayahuasca) Desmarchelier et al. 1996

    remolino: Whirlwind or whirlpool. Used variously to describe the swirling center of the visual field where visual elements appear to arise or to the "drunkenness" produced by San Pedro. Sharon 1978 & Glass-Coffin 1998

    renaco: Coussapoa tessmannii Mildbr. [Moraceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.
    Ficus insipida Will. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b and Ficus ruiziana Standl. [Moraceae]
    Ficus sp. [Moraceae] Luna 1984b.

    rumo sacha: Name listed for Psychotria stenostachya Standl. [Rubiaceae]. Duke & Vasquez Martinez 1993

    Runa (Quijos-Quichua) in Ecuador speak Quichua.

    saangariite: Guardian spirits recognized by the Matsigenka in Peru. Perceived to be elusive and luminous beings about the size of human children, they are believed to "live in an unending, joyous manioc beer-drinking party, uninterrupted by human distractions such as garden work or social tensions."
    The shaman cultivates a relationship with a spirit twin among the saangariite, which then prepares ayahuasca whenever the shaman does and while under the influence the two switch places.
    Shepard 1998

    saaro: Matsigenka name for Brugmansia

    sabiduría: "wisdom" Luna 1984a

    sacha: Common name for Virola calophylla (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    sacha-ajos: Mansoa alliacea (Lam) A. Gentry; Luna 1994a.

    sacha paparahua: Common name for Virola duckei (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994sacharuna: An Ese'eja name for the `devil' Desmarchelier et al. 1996

    sacha- toé : Brugmansia insignis (B. -R.) Lockw. ex R.E. Schultes [Solanaceae]

    sachruna : See chullachaqui. Luna 1984b.

    saida nyame dudi: Common name used by the Siona in eastern Ecuador for Cyperus prolixus H.B.K. [Cyperaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    salamán borachéra: name applied to a Datura (Brugmansia?) used medicinally by the Sibundoy. Bristol 1966

    salamán borrachera: Common name for Brugmansia candida "Salamán" cultivar. One of the two most toxic Brugmansia candida cultivars grown by the Sibundoy. The rarest cultivar; known only from one garden. Bristol 1969

    salamanga borrachera: Common name (origin?) for Brugmansia candida "Salamán" cultivar. Bristol 1969

    salvanje borrachera: Common name (origin?) for Brugmansia candida "Salamán" cultivar. Bristol 1969

    sameruca: Name listed for Psychotria carthaginensis Jacq. [Rubiaceae]. Duke & Vasquez Martinez 1993. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Pinkley 1969. A name in Peru (Departamento de Loreto, Rio Nanay, Samito) for Psychotria carthaginensis. Schultes 1972a.

    sameruja: Unknown admixture plant mentioned by Simson. Pinkley 1969.

    sami ruca : Name used in Ecuador for the ayahuasca additive Diplopterys cabrerana. Ott 1994 Name used in Ecuador for the ayahuasca additive Psychotria viridis. .Ott 1995

    samiki: Shuar name for Calliandra pentandra [Leguminosae]. Frequently used as an admixture plant in natem or ayahuasca. Used as DMT admixture plant. Fericgla 1994.

    samohú: Common name for Chorisia speciosa [Bombaceae] Rätsch 1998

    sanaguillo: Name listed for Psychotria marginata Sw. [Rubiaceae](an ayahuasca admixture) Also for Psychotria acuminata Benth. and Psychotria deflexa DC. (by Cuna). No reported use of the last two as ayahuasca additives; all three have medicinal applications. Duke & Vasquez Martinez 1993

    sanango: Brunfelsia grandiflora var. schultesii Pl. [Solanaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.
    Abuta grandifolia (Mart.) Sandwith [Menispermaceae]
    [Bonafousia tetrastachya ; (HBK) Markgraf (Tabernaemontana siphilitica) [Apocynaceae] is known in Colombia by this same name, Schultes & Raffauf 1986, but there is no report of its use in ayahuasca.]
    Name used for Tabernaemontana sananho Ruiz & Pavon near Puerto Nariño around Laguna Dolfus, Rio Loretoyácu, Comisaria del Amazonas, Colombia. Schultes 1983b.

    sananho: Name used for Tabernaemontana sananho Ruiz & Pavon Delle Monache et al. 1977.

    San Cipriano: Believed to be the saint of Peruvian shamans. Glass-Coffin 1998

    sangre gallina: Spanish name, in the Napo region of Ecuador, for Otoba parvifolia (Mkf.) A. Gentry. Davis & Yost 1983b Not reported in ayahuasca.

    sangre toro: Tijuna name (in Colombia) for Otoba parvifolia (Mkf.) A. Gentry. Davis & Yost 1983b Not reported in ayahuasca.

    sankenke: "purifying shrub" Matsigenka name for a Brunfelsia species. Shepard 1998

    sanogarish: Machiguenga name for a Geogenanthus sp. [Commelinaceae] Russo et al. 1996-1997

    San Pedro: Name used by Peruvian healers for Trichocereus pachanoi. [Cactaceae] Use in ayahuasca analogs is strictly of modern origin (See DeKorne 1997). Used widely for healing purposes. See Trout's Notes Vol. One.

    San Pedro macho: Name said to be used by Peruvian healers for Trichocereus peruvianus. [Cactaceae] [Correspondence received from Carlos Ostoloza.] Use in ayahuasca analogs has only been reported once in the literature (p. 13 Entheogen Review Vernal Equinox 1995). Apparently used similarly to San Pedro in Peru but much less frequently. Sharon's claims of toxic components appears to be unsubstantiated.

    Santa Maria: Name for Cannabis used at Colonia 5000 in Acre. Henman 1986. Considered an important sacrament.

    Santo Daime: "Doctrine of Santo Daime". A major ayahuasca based religion. Shulgin & Shulgin 1997

    seguro: "Security" "talisman" May mean a jar of herbs or another charmed object. Glass-Coffin 1998

    seme pehi: "paca Brugmansia " Common name (Siona) for Brugmansia x insignis (B. Rodr.) Lockwood [Solanaceae] [Specimen not collected.] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    seri: Matsigenka name for Tobacco (They cultivate several varieties of Nicotiana tabacum and also use wild species including Nicotiana rustica) Shepard 1998

    seripegari: Machiguenga name for a shaman. Russo et al. 1996-1997
    "One who becomes intoxicated with tobacco" Matsigenka name for a shaman. Shepard 1998

    seritaki: "Tobacco bark" Bark from one of several tree species used to make ash which the Matsigenka use in making tobacco snuff. Shepard 1998

    sese pehí: "white-lipped peccary Brugmansia " Common name (Siona) for Brugmansia x insignis (B. Rodr.) Lockwood [Solanaceae] [Specimen not collected.] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    shako-shagari: Sharanahua name for a Cyperus spp. [Cyperaceae] Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Reported and vouched by Rivier and Rüff; Pinkley 1969. Pinkley spells shako shayari.

    shakoshejeti: Sharanahua name for a Cyperus sp. (called piri-piri in Peru) [Cyperaceae]

    shaman devil spirit: Name used for Gnetum nodiflorum Brogniart by the Wyanas of Surinam. [Gnetaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes & raffauf 1990.

    shapshico: See chullachaqui. Luna 1984b.

    shimakoa: "fish plant" Matsigenka name for a Brunfelsia species. Shepard 1998

    shimbillo: Pithecolobium laetum Poepp. & Endl. [Leguminosae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    shinguarana: Cornutia odorata (Poepp. & Endl.) Poepp. [Verbenaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited McKenna et al. 1986.

    shiquillo: Common name for Virola calophylla (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    shivitsa: Matsigenka word meaning "liana" meaning Banisteriopsis caapi Shepard 1998

    shoka: Sharanahua name for Lomariopsis japurensis (Mart.) J. Sm. [Dryopteridaceae] Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Reported and vouched by Rivier and Rüff; Pinkley 1969. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Pinkley 1969

    shucar: Verb used for magically caused harm effected by places thought to be "charmed" Noun form is shuco(a) Glass-Coffin 1998

    silk cotton tree: Common name for Ecuadorian Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b. [Bombacaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    sinsin-ño': Name used for Calliandra angustifolia Spruce ex Bentham [Leguminosae] by Kofán in Ecuador and Colombia. Schultes 1983c.

    sira mito: "swallow [bird] tobacco" A common name (Siona) for a smaller leafed variety of Nicotiana. [Identity unclear; it was not collected.] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    sisi ka'wi: "monkey fern" Secoya name for Lomariopsis japurensis (Mart.) J. Sm.

    [Polypodiaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    slenderlobed bundleflower:
    Common name for Desmanthus leptolobus.

    snoka: Sharanahua name for Lomariopsis japurensis (Mart.) J. Sm. [Lomariopsidaceae] McKenna et al. 1986. See shoka above.

    sombra de tora: Name given by Gates 1982 as a local name (in Argentina) for Banisteriopsis muricata

    sucuuba: Himatanthus sucuuba (Spr. ex M. -A.) Woodson [Apocynaceae] See also ucuúba. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    sucuúba: Name used for Himatanthus sucuuba (Spr. ex Muell. -Arg.) Woodson [Apocynaceae] in market (Ver-o-Peso) in Belém, Brazil. van den Berg 1984.

    suelda con suelda: Phtirusa pyrifolia HBK. Eichler [Loranthaceae] Luna 1984a. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    suija: Name used in Tarapoto, Peru for Psychotria viridis McKenna et al. 1984

    suni panga huapa: Common name for Virola calophylla (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    supay : See chullachaqui. Luna 1984b.

    supay chacruna : ("devil's mixture") A Psychotria species used as a specialized ayahuasca admixture. Ott 1995.

    susto: A magical fright believed to result in the loss of the soul. Caused by spirits not sorcerers. Glass-Coffin 1998

    tabaco: Nicotiana sp. Langdon 1986. Also used as the name for a mixture of tobacco leaves, cane alcohol and perfumes that is nasally ingested to activate the power of spirits and to call them to the mesa. Glass-Coffin 1998
    Ese'eja name for Nicotiana tabacum (They use it medicinally but do not combine it with ayahuasca except as smoked material) Desmarchelier et al. 1996

    tabaqueros : Healing specialists (Peruvian mestizos) who use tobacco for performing shamanic functions. Luna 1984b.

    tahuari: Anthodiscus pilosus Ducke [Caryocaraceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited McKenna et al. 1986.

    tahuari: Tabebuia spp. McKenna et al. 1986

    tahuari: Tabebuia heteropoda (DC.) Sandwith [Bignoniaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    tahuari: Vitex trifolia Vahl. [Verbenaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    tãkiyaí pehí: "tãkiyaí-felid Brugmansia " Common name (Siona) for Brugmansia x insignis [Solanaceae] [Specimen not collected.] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    tal: Cornutia odorata (Poepp. & Endl.) Poepp. [Verbenaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited McKenna et al. 1986.

    tamshi: Carludovica divergens Drude [Cyclanthaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    tamshi: Unidentified ayahuasca admixture used in Iquitos region. Luna 1984b

    tangarana: Triplaris surinamensis Chamisso. [Polygonaceae] Rätsch 1998
    Triplaris surinamensis var. chamissoana Meisn. [Polygonaceae] Luna 1984a and Luna 1984b. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b. Also in Rätsch 1998. Common name for Virola multinervia [Myristicaceae] (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    tap-kam': Gnetum nodiflorum Brongniart [Gnetaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990.

    tara: Culina name for a Clusia sp. [Guttiferae] Reported and vouched by Rivier and Rüff; Pinkley 1969.
    See also tara in Anadenanthera and MAOI source plant common names word lists and under the entry for Caesalpinia.

    tarjo: A power song. Glass-Coffin 1998

    taruma: Vitex trifolia Vahl. [Verbenaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    Tasorintsi: "Blowing Spirit" The creator of the world and its creatures according to the Matsigenka in Peru. Shepard 1998

    tchai: Sharanahua name for Lygodium venustum Swartz. [Schizaeaceae] Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Reported and vouched by Rivier and Rüff; Pinkley 1969.
    Opuntia sp. formerly used by some Sharanahua. Now used on its own by some Shipibo and Amahuaca shamans. [Cactaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Rivier & Lindgren 1972

    tchai del monte: Sharanhua name for Lygodium venustum Swartz. [Schizaeaceae]. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Pinkley 1969

    tem'-bee-ho-o: The thick soft layer of inner bark and phloem of the Virola species used by the Bora to prepare hallucinogenic resin. Schultes et al. 1977a

    tepescohuite: Common name in Mexico for Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir.; Barneby 1991. Only known as an ayahuasca analog in modern times.

    tinku: Encounter or ritual battle. Glass-Coffin 1998

    tinye: A name for lengua de tigre. Bristol 1969

    tipu: Common name listed for a Croton sp. [Euphorbiaceae] Rätsch 1998

    tipuru: Common name listed for a Croton sp. [Euphorbiaceae] Rätsch 1998
    Unidentified admixture plant. Rätsch 1998

    toá: Peruvian name for Brugmansia suaveolens [Solanaceae] Schultes 1972a.

    toante: Atikum name for the music of a sacred plant Silveira Barbosa 1998

    toa-toe: Brugmansia insignis (B. -R.) Lockw. ex R.E. Schultes [Solanaceae]

    tobacco: A common name (English) for Nicotiana tabacum L. [Solanaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    tobaco: A common name (Spanish) for Nicotiana tabacum L. [Solanaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    toé: Common name for Brugmansia suaveolens (H. & B.) B.&P. [Solanaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993
    Common name, in Ecuador, for Ipomoea carnea [Convolvulaceae] Rätsch 1998.

    toé negra: Kokama (in Amazonian Peru) name for Teliostachia lanceolata Nees var. crispa Nees [Acanthaceae]. Schultes 1972a and Schultes 1972c.

    toé negro: Teliostachia lanceolata Nees var. crispa Nees [Acanthaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    tonga: Name used in Peru for drink prepared from Brugmansia sanguinea. Safford 1920 Name used for Brugmansia aurea [Solanaceae] and for Brugmansia sanguinea by the Macaguaje near the Rio Caquetá in Colombia.[Solanaceae] Schultes 1986.

    tongo: Name used in Peru for drink prepared from Brugmansia sanguinea. Safford 1916a

    too: See as tooka.

    tooka: Unidentified small plant with white sap and blackish berries, recognized by the Tukano. Also known as too. Possible additive plant? Reichel-Dolmatoff 1975

    Toowoomba Canary Grass: A common name given for Phalaris aquatica cv. Australian. See Ewarts 1908 and Trumble 1935.

    tornillo: Cedrelinga catenaeformis Ducke [Leguminosae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    to-to-oa-yoko (totoayoko): ("white yoco") An ecotype of Paullinia yoco Schultes & Killip [Sapindaceae] recognized by the Kofán. (Considered the best type). Schultes 1980.

    tõto yahi: Siona name for the Moraceous Pseudolmoedia laevis (R. & P.) Macbride. Vickers & Plowman 1984 Not reported in ayahuasca.

    totubjansushe: Kamsá name for Iochroma fuchsioides Miers. Schultes 1983d.

    trabajo: "job" An act of sorcery. Glass-Coffin 1998

    tree-datura: Common name (English) for Brugmansia x insignis (B. Rodr.) Lockwood [Solanaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    tree of the evil eagle: Guambiano designation for Brugmansia sanguinea subsp. vulcanicola. Davis 1997

    trompetero sanango: Abuta grandifolia (Mart.) Sandwith [Menispermaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    True Psychotria: "orovampashi-sano" Matsigenka name for their preferred Psychotria species Shepard 1998

    tsemtsem: Common name listed for a Peperomia sp. [Piperaceae] Rätsch 1998

    tsicta: Common name for Tabernaemontana sananho. [Apocynaceae]…of the jungle catalog.

    tsina: Culina name for a Nicotiana sp. that is smoked during ayahuasca sessions, or it may be drank by some shamans.

    tsontinbak'o: Kofán name for a Brunfelsia sp. [Solanaceae]; Pinkley 1969.

    tsuak: Common name for Brugmansia suaveolens [Solanaceae] Rätsch 1998

    tsushie borrachera: Common name used for Brugmansia candida "Ocre" cultivar. Bristol 1969

    tuiruibanto: Machiguenga name for a Voyria sp. [Gentianaceae] Russo et al. 1996-1997

    tupamaqui: Name listed for Psychotria alba R. & P. and fir Psychotria horizontalis Sw. and for Psychotria viridis R. & P. [Rubiaceae]. Duke & Vasquez M. 1993

    turkey red: A strain of Phalaris arundinacea specifically cultivated for its high 5-MeO-DMT content. Not known as a traditional ayahuasca additive but its foliage is successfully used for this purpose in modern times due to its 5-MeO-DMT content. Name is derived from its country of origin [P.I. 172443 Turkey. Originating: Yagbasan, Sarikamis, Kars., Turkey] and the observation of an unidentified band (in tlc) that reacted red with Ehrlichs reagent. One of a relatively few strains of this species which shows a consistent alkaloid profile from plant to plant.

    tutujansushe: Kamsá name for Iochroma fuchsioides Miers. Schultes 1983d.

    tzicta: Common name for Tabernaemontana sananho. [Apocynaceae] Rätsch 1998. Common name used for this species by the Ecuadorian Runa. Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    uchu-sanango: Tabernaemontana sp. [Apocynaceae] Luna 1984a and Luna 1984b. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    ucumi-micuna: Name listed for Psychotria alba R. & P. [Rubiaceae]. Duke & Vasquez M. 1993

    ucuna: Muinave name for several kinds of tree; probably Virola. Holmstedt et al. 1980 and Rodriguez 1980.

    ucuúba: General name (Brazil) for many Virola species. Schultes 1969b. Name used for many species of Virola, Osteophloeum and Iryanthera.

    ucuba: oiltree Common name given for Virola surinamensis. Fletcher 1997

    ucuhuba: Common name given for Virola surinamensis. Fletcher 1997

    ucuiba: Common name given for Virola surinamensis. Fletcher 1997

    UdV: União do Vegetal. "Union of the Plant" A major ayahuasca based religion. Shulgin & Shulgin 1997

    uhahua: Common name (Siona) for Common name (Siona) for Brunfelsia grandiflora D. Don subsp. schultesii Plowman [Solanaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    ukhu pacha: The underworld. See hurin pacha Glass-Coffin 1998

    u-kú-na: Name given on a voucher of Dialyanthera parviflora Markgraf [Myristicaceae] from Rio Napo in Peru. See also oo-koó-na. Schultes 1969b.

    ulape: Cornutia odorata (Poepp. & Endl.) Poepp. [Verbenaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited McKenna et al. 1986.

    ü'-meh: Basic "salt" used by the Bora to coat Virola resin pellets. Schultes et al. 1977a

    umu uhahai: "cacique bird Brunfelsia" Common name (Siona) for a Brunfelsia species [Identity of this plant is uncertain; it was not collected] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    uña de gato: Common name listed for Uncaria tomentosa [Rubiaceae] Rätsch 1998

    unganangi: Uncaria guianensis (Aubl.) Gmelin [Rubiaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited McKenna et al. 1986.

    união: Name used for the sect (UdV) Shulgin & Shulgin 1997

    União do Vegetal: "Union of the Plant" A major ayahuasca based religion. Shulgin & Shulgin 1997

    unt maikiwá: Name used by Shuar for Brugmansia X insignis (B. Rodriguez) Lockwood [Solanaceae] Fericgla 1994

    uratetseperi: Unidentified Acanthaceous plant used by the Culina. (Rivier & Lindgren)

    Urubamba-leaf: Psychotria as known by the Matsigenka. Shepard 1998

    urubambashi: A Psychotria sp. used as a DMT containing admixture by the Machiguenga Russo et al. 1996-1997

    urucu: Common name given for Bixa orellana. Fletcher 1997

    urucum: Common name given for Bixa orellana. Fletcher 1997

    uruku: Common name given for Bixa orellana. Fletcher 1997

    vaí-gahpi: Unidentified plant. Rätsch 1998. See in MAOI source list.

    vegetal: Name for tea used by UdV. Shulgin & Shulgin 1997

    vegetalistas: Plant specialists (Peruvian mestizos). Luna 1984b.

    Viho-mahse: `spirit master' recognized by the Tukano and contacted through the use of Virola snuff. Davis 1997

    vinho de jurema: Hallucinogenic drink prepared, in eastern Brazil, from Mimosa hostilis roots. Gonçalves de Lima 1946.

    virotes: magic darts. Luna 1984a

    vista en virtud: An encanto that is visually manifest. Glass-Coffin 1998

    wah-kah-pu: Name used by Tiriós for Vouacapoua americana Aubl. [Leguminosae]. Plotkin 1993 page 99.

    wais: Common name for Ilex guayusa Loes. [Aquifoliaceae] Rätsch 1998

    wamapanako: Culina name for Epiphyllum sp. [Cactaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Pinkley 1969.

    wahashupa: Unidentified plant used by the Sharanahua, thought to be Brugmansia suaveolens (Datura suaveolens) [Solanaceae]

    Waika: Isolated group of people belonging to the larger group known as the Yanomama (AKA Yanomami or Yanomamo) Name means "killer". Seitz 1967

    wakara bã): "heron people" A group of the "heavenly people" See ma'timo bai. Vickers & Plowman 1984

    watí: "demon" Spirit helper used by shamans to cause illness. Vickers & Plowman 1984

    wayana: Name used in Peru for Mimosa cf. pudica. [Leguminosae]. Pino 1995.

    wea yahi: Siona name for the Moraceous Pseudolmoedia laevis (R. & P.) Macbride. Vickers & Plowman 1984

    weki pehí: "tapir Brugmansia " Common name (Siona) for a Brugmansia sp. [Solanaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    wenae: Malevolent spirits used by Waorani shamans to wreak evil. Davis & Yost 1983a Spirits which are able to cause illness. Davis & Yost 1983b

    whore's lips: Common name in Costa Rica for Psychotria poeppigiana. (From Missouri Botanical Garden website)

    winchu: Common name listed for a Heliconia sp. [Heliconiaceae] Rätsch 1998

    wingimoncawe: Waorani name for Iryanthera juruensis Warb. (Used against fungus.). Davis & Yost 1983b ["e" has / through it: sounds like "a" in cat]]

    wishin maikiwá: Name used by Shuar for a Brugmansia cultivar? [Solanaceae] Pers. comm. M. Bini

    wy-soo-dö: Name used for Psychotria carthaginensis by the Makuna in Colombia. Schultes 1969)

    yaco-ayahuasco : Name used for the Malpighiaceous Diplopterys cabrerana (Cuatr.) B.Gates. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 citing Poisson 1965. Name given by Gates 1982 as a local name (in Peru) for Diplopterys cabrerana.

    yacochihua: Alchornea castanaefolia (Willd.) Juss. [Euphorbiaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b.

    yacruna: spirits associated or sometimes identified with freshwater dolphins. Considered malevolent. Luna 1984b.

    yacu: Quichua word meaning "river" Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    yacu zanango: Name for Tabernaemontana sananho Ruiz & Pavon. Rio Paranapura, Maucallacta, Departamento de Loreto, Peru. Schultes 1983b.

    yage: Psychotria viridis [Rubiaceae] (Peruvian Mestizos) Luna 1984a

    yagé: Name used for various Banisteriopsis species. See under MAOI source plant common name list.

    yagé: Name used for Diplopterys cabrerana by the Barasana of the lower Piraparaná, (Caño Teemeeña) Comisaría del Vaupés, Colombia. Drink made from stems. Schultes 1977b cited García-Barriga 1975. Name given by Gates 1982 as a local name (in Peru) for Diplopterys cabrerana. See also MAOI source plant common name list.

    yagé: Name listed for Rubiaceous Psychotria alba R. & P. (sometimes added to ayahuasca), Psychotria carthaginensis Jacq., Psychotria marginata Sw., Psychotria stenostachya Standl. and Psychotria viridis R. & P. Duke & Vasquez M. 1993

    yage-chacruna: Name used in Tarapoto, Peru for Psychotria carthaginensis Jacq. McKenna et al. 1984. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Pinkley 1969.

    yageúco : Name for B. rusbyana (referring to Diplopterys cabrerana)Near Puerto Ospina on the Rio Putumayo in the Comisaría del Putumayo in Amazonian Colombia It is cultivated for use by the Kofán to prepare the drink yajé. Schultes 1957. Name given by Gates 1982 as a local name (in Colombia) for Diplopterys cabrerana.

    yági: Shuar name for Diplopterys cabrerana [Malpighiaceae]. Used as a DMT admixture plant in ayahuasca. Fericgla 1997.

    yahé'okó: "Banisteriopsis water" Siona-Secoya name for Diplopterys cabrerana [They cultivate it.] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    yahi: Siona name for the Moraceous Pseudolmoedia laevis (R. & P.) Macbride. Vickers & Plowman 1984 Not reported in ayahuasca.

    yahi: Siona word to refer to sweet potatos (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) Vickers & Plowman 1984 Not reported in ayahuasca.

    yahuar irqua yura: "blood thin tree" Common name for Composoneura sprucei (Ecuadorian Runa) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    yaí uhahai: "jaguar Brunfelsia" Common name (Siona) for a Brunfelsia species that "may be Brunfelsia chiricaspi" [Identity of this plant is uncertain; it was not collected] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    yajé: Name used by Jivaro for Diplopterys cabrerana. Pinkley 1969 citing Poisson 1965. [Also cited by Bianchi & Samorini 1993]
    Name given by Gates 1982 as a local name (in Ecuador) for Diplopterys cabrerana (Cuatr.) B.Gates. [Malpighiaceae]

    yajé agua: "water yajé" Two main classes of yajé agua are recognized by the Siona based on leaf size. Believed to be Diplopterys cabrerana.
    Siona classification for some ayahuasca admixtures. The major classes are Diplopterys and the minor are Brunfelsia Langdon 1986

    yajé agua de jaguar: The larger of the two forms of yajé agua known by the Siona. (A form of Diplopterys cabrerana that they use in preparing yajé.) Langdon 1986

    yajé agua de pájaro: The smaller of the two forms of yajé agua known by the Siona. (A form of Diplopterys cabrerana that they use in preparing yajé.) Langdon 1986

    yajé de pajarito: = Diplopterys cabrerana? Additive to caapi used by the Siona in Comisaría Colombiana del Putumayo. (1 of 18 classes of yaje recognized by the Siona) Schultes 1986a & Langdon 1986

    yajeoco: Unidentified admixture plant (probably D. cabrerana). Leaves of a shrub (?) used by Secoya in Ecuador. Pinkley 1969.

    yájeo'k'o: Unidentified admixture plant (probably D. cabrerana). Leaves of a vine used by Kofán in Ecuador (native and cultivated). Pinkley 1969. [Font did not allow correct diacritical mark for first '. Should be much more exaggerated.]

    yajé oko: Name given by Gates 1982 as a local name (by the Kofan in Colombia) for Diplopterys cabrerana.

    yaji: Unidentified admixture plant (probably D. cabrerana). Leaves of a vine used by Quichua in Ecuador to make ayahuasca. (native and cultivated) Leaves of a vine used by Jivaro in Ecuador to make natém. (cultivated) Pinkley 1969.

    yáji: Shuar name for Diplopterys cabrerana[Malpighiaceae]. Used as a DMT admixture plant in ayahuasca. Fericgla 1994.

    yají: Name given by Gates 1982 as a local name (in Ecuador) for Diplopterys cabrerana

    yamba: Unidentified tree bark boiled with ayahuasca by Sharanahua. [Rivier & Lindgren]

    yá-kee: Snuff made from the bark exudate of a Virola

    yakomamamshi: "Anaconda leaf" A Matsigenka name for Psychotria viridis Shepard 1998

    yambabusi: Unidentified tree bark boiled with ayahuasca by Sharanahua [Rivier & Lindgren]

    yashingo: See chullachaqui. Luna 1984b.

    yau-wa-hau'-ka-kee: Name used by Kubeos in the Vaupés of Colombia for Malouetia tamaquarina (Aubl.) A.DC. [Apocynaceae]; Schultes & Raffauf 1986.

    ya'wi pehí: "collared peccary Brugmansia " Common name (Siona) for a Brugmansia sp. [Solanaceae] Vickers & Plowman 1984

    yerba de huaca: Name used in Peru for Brugmansia sanguinea. Safford 1916a

    yoco: Siona name for the caffeine rich admixture Paullinia yoco Schultes & Killip [Sapindaceae] Langdon 1986

    yoko: A cold water infusion of Paullinia yoco R.E. Schultes & Killip [Sapindaceae] bark. Also name for the plant. Vickers & Plowman 1984

    yonque: Cane alcohol Glass-Coffin 1998

    yopo: Snuff, usually made from Anadenanthera peregrina seeds but known to be referable to at least two other snuff sources.

    yoxa jaxtahua: Name used for Bauhinia guianensis Aubl. [Leguminosae] by the Chácobo living at Alto Ivón, Beni, Bolivia. Boom 1987.

    yuchán: Common name for Chorisia insignis [Bombaceae] Rätsch 1998

    Yugoslavian fresh-cut: Name given to a Phalaris arundinacea strain [P.I. 253317 Yugoslavia] that shows its best extraction results if extracted fresh rather than dried.

    Yugoslavian red: This name also appears as a commercial offering. Do not confuse with "Yugoslavian fresh cut" as "Yugoslavian red" is a strain of Phalaris aquatica. According to the vendor the seeds were obtained under this name from a supplier in Sarajevo. They either did not obtain or did not preserve its plant introduction number. It is said to have red root stalks and to be "potent" in human bioassay.

    yukuna: Name given by Gates 1982 as a local name (in Venezuela) for Banisteriopsis martiniana var. martiniana (Unclear if this variety is used in ayahuasca.)

    Yumbos: A pejorative term applied (in anthropological literature) to the Ecuadorian Quijos-Quichua (Runa is their name for themselves) Bennett & Alarcón 1994

    yupa: Name for Anadenanthera peregrina. Safford 1916

    yurema: A name for the drink prepared from Mimosa hostilis roots [Leguminosae]. Schultes 1969b. Alternate rendering of jurema.