Ayahuasca: alkaloids, plants & analogs
Section 3 : Part 2 :
Acacia species with successful human bioassay reports
The following species have all been proven effective but care must be taken to determine the potency of material and part used as many appear useless for entheogenic applications.
The following are simply those Acacias (and their parts) that have been proven to be effective by human bioassay. Analysis of roots is currently lacking in most cases but is strongly urged.
We suspect the betacarboline content of A. obtusifolia roots is what is responsible for the amazing but rare extracts which are known in some circles as the "blacklight material" Most occurrences of DMT in Acacia species are accompanied by the occurrence of MMT.
All of these are Australian species.
Acacia maidenii F. Muell.
Ferdinand Jacob Heinrich von Mueller 1892, in Bot. Centralbl. 51: 398
Reported to be effective in human bioassays using an undisclosed volume of bark. Reports of ineffective trials and paltry isolation attempts also exist. Apparently highly variable in content.
0.36% DMT was reported as isolated from dry bark.
- Fitzgerald & Sioumis 1965
This is perhaps the best known DMT containing Acacia to people outside of Australia. It is noteworthy that most people that we know of in Australia seem to no longer have interest in Acacia maidenii.
Acacia obtusifolia A.Cunn.
Alan Cunningham 1825, in B.Field, Geographical Memoirs on New South Wales 345 (He first collected it in 1822)
The analysis of this species are limited and it currently lacks proper publication in a peer reviewed journal but stands supported by numerous human bioassays using isolated material and several analytical forays.
It is also being commonly used as an ayahuasca & ayahuasca analog admixture. Mulga reported 0.4-0.5% total alkaloid in the dried bark (0.07% in the dried leaves) Proportion of DMT was not determined but it was believed to be the major base.
Readily differentiated from Acacia maidenii due to obtusifolia having irregular leaf margins lined with microscopic granular resin globules and for having linear mostly straight pods rather than maidenii's twisting pods
See Mulga at http://www.lycaeum.org/drugs/plants/tryptamines/acacia/species.html
Interestingly Mulga 2003 showed the presence of small amounts of both harman and leptocladine in the bark (using hplc and ms)
Acacia phlebophylla H.B.Will.
- Herbert Bennett Williamson 1931, in A.J.Ewart, Fl. Victoria 607
Reported by Ott 1994 to be effective; using 20 grams of dried leaves as an ayahuasca analog admixture.
0.3% DMT was previously recovered from the dry leaf. Rovelli & Vaughan 1967
This is a rare endemic in great need of propagation and preservation efforts. Apparently neither bark nor roots have seen either analysis or bioassay.
The leaves are shed annually and these shed dead dry leaves have been determined to be fully effective at around the 20-30 leaf level.
Interestingly this known population of this species is now believed to actually be the result of a spontaneous natural hybrid resulting between Acacia alpina and Acacia dallachiana (suggesting two more species in need of analysis)
There is supposedly a news black-out in Australia concerning the names of the Acacia species with DMT in them. This was said to be due to concerns about the "dangerous" "new" drug DMT for which "Few studies have been conducted on" and claimed it had been known on the British dance scene for about 2 years.
DMT is a substance which naturally occurs in human brain, cerebrospinal fluid and other body fluids. It is presently thought to be a minor neuro-transmitter and is perhaps the most intensively studied of all the hallucinogens due to its short action. It was first synthesized in 1931 and first evaluated in humans in pure form in 1956. Intensive human clinical studies were conducted by Rick Strassman at the University of New Mexico from 1990-1995.
I might add that not only does it produce no physical harm but there has NEVER been as much as a single death caused by DMT and, due to its intense nature, it has minimal abuse potential. (Most people literally can't stand it.)
The majority of new users try in as a direct result of advertisements like this or other ridiculous claims, similarly made by so-called anti-drug agencies, that it is a short-acting pleasurable euphoriant hallucinogen suitable for lunchtime use. It actually was given the misnomer of the "businessman's high" by such people!
DMT use is more effectively limited by factual information concerning its actual effects being provided BY OTHER USERS. It is NOT a recreational drug except in the eyes of the uninformed, those ignorant of its actual effects or those deliberately misrepresenting it to aid in obtaining further legal restrictions against it. The Australian account further mentioned that the information concerning its sources was readily available on the Internet and this freely available information had drug experts worried. One must wonder not only where they got their (mis-) information but what goes on in these people's minds to present such rubbish; guaranteed to seriously stimulate new drug experimentation among the very people they claim to be worried about using said drug. Perhaps the "drug educators" and "drug experts" they mentioned view this in terms of `job security' measures?
Regardless, their drug experts and educators clearly need to begin by better educating themselves. Preferably with some facts grounded in reality.
Perhaps my favorite quote was by Paul Dillon (National Drug & Alcohol Research Center), concerning teenage users, "They tend to use it in ceremonial situations, much like young people play with ouija boards." Doherty 1998
This last comment says a lot about Doherty's unspoken beliefs (and a commonly encountered source of fear so often miguidedly propagated via legislation).