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905–1170 Ritual bundle found in a funerary site in SW Bolivia contains remnants of DMT, Harmine, Bufotenine, Cocaine, and possibly Psilocin, along with snuff tablets, a snuff tube, llama bone scrapers, and a head band. The find is notable because of the presence of a number of psychoactive chemicals, as well as the combined presence of DMT and Harmine. 1   [More Info]
1841 Harmaline first synthesized from Syrian rue.   
1852 Earliest known western record of the psychoactive effects of ayahuasca Banisteriopsis caapi in the Brazilian Amazon. 2   [Details]
1858 First widely read description of yage practices was published. 3  
1923 A film of South American yage ceremonies was shown at the annual meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association.   
1968 Holmstedt, Lindgren, and Agurell hypothesize that the effects of ayahuasca are caused by a combination of naturally occurring monoamine oxidase inhibitors and DMT. 4  
Oct 28-29, 2010 Pratiques Contemporaines des Plantes Psychotropes [Contemporary Practices with Psychotropic Plants]    [Details] [More Info]
Jun 17, 2011 European Ayahuasca Research Symposium    [Details] [More Info]
Mar 4, 2012 Ayahuasca in a Global Context    [Details] [More Info]

  1.   Miller M, Albarracin-Jordan J, et al. "Chemical evidence for the use of multiple psychotropic plants in a 1,000-year-old ritual bundle from South America". PNAS. May 6, 2019. [ Erowid Reference ]
  2.   Spruce, R. In: Wallace, AR (Ed.) Notes of a Botanist on the Amazon and Andes. London: Macmillan. 1908; and: Spruce, R. "Ocean Highways". Geographical Review n.s. No. 55(Aug):184. 1873. As cited in Schultes, RE. "The beta-Carboline Hallucinogens of South America" Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 14(3):205-220. 1982.
  3.   Stafford P. Psychedelics Encyclopedia. Ronin. 1992.
  4.   Ott, J. "Pharmahuasca, Anahuasca and Vinho da Jurema: Human Pharmacology of Oral DMT Plus Harmine". Yearbook for Ethnomedicine. 1997/98.