|905–1170||Ritual bundle found in a funerary site in SW Bolivia contains remnants of DMT, Harmine, Bufotenine, Cocaine, and possibly Psilocin, along with snuff tablets, a snuff tube, llama bone scrapers, and a head band. The find is notable because of the presence of a number of psychoactive chemicals, as well as the combined presence of DMT and Harmine. 1 [More Info]|
|1841||Harmaline first synthesized from Syrian rue.|
|1852||Earliest known western record of the psychoactive effects of ayahuasca Banisteriopsis caapi in the Brazilian Amazon. 2 [Details]|
|1858||First widely read description of yage practices was published. 3|
|1923||A film of South American yage ceremonies was shown at the annual meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association.|
|1968||Holmstedt, Lindgren, and Agurell hypothesize that the effects of ayahuasca are caused by a combination of naturally occurring monoamine oxidase inhibitors and DMT. 4|
|Oct 28-29, 2010||Pratiques Contemporaines des Plantes Psychotropes [Contemporary Practices with Psychotropic Plants] [Details] [More Info]|
|Jun 17, 2011||European Ayahuasca Research Symposium [Details] [More Info]|
|Mar 4, 2012||Ayahuasca in a Global Context [Details] [More Info]|
- Miller M, Albarracin-Jordan J, et al. "Chemical evidence for the use of multiple psychotropic plants in a 1,000-year-old ritual bundle from South America". PNAS. May 6, 2019. [ Erowid Reference ]
- Spruce, R. In: Wallace, AR (Ed.) Notes of a Botanist on the Amazon and Andes. London: Macmillan. 1908; and: Spruce, R. "Ocean Highways". Geographical Review n.s. No. 55(Aug):184. 1873. As cited in Schultes, RE. "The beta-Carboline Hallucinogens of South America" Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 14(3):205-220. 1982.
- Stafford P. Psychedelics Encyclopedia. Ronin. 1992.
- Ott, J. "Pharmahuasca, Anahuasca and Vinho da Jurema: Human Pharmacology of Oral DMT Plus Harmine". Yearbook for Ethnomedicine. 1997/98.