Plants - Drugs Mind - Spirit Freedom - Law Arts - Culture Library  
by Christian Rätsch
Originally published in The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants
Citation:   Rätsch C. Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants. Park Street Press. 2005. pg. 751-4.
Other Names
Cab, honig, kab, ksandra (Sanskrit), mel, mella, miel

Honey is a substance produced by the domestic honeybee [(Apis mellifera)] and by wild bees (Melipona spp., Trigona spp.) from the nectar and pollen of various plants. "Honey is perhaps the only predigested food that humans know" (Root 1996, 127).

"The fact that honey can be toxic and/or psychoactive - in other words, inebriating - has long been known and has been demonstrated throughout the world...."
Honey has been used to make mead since the Stone Age. The fact that honey can be toxic and/or psychoactive - in other words, inebriating - has long been known and has been demonstrated throughout the world (Palmer-Jones 1965). Honey also has a long history of use as a healing remedy or a "heavenly medicine." In Hippocratic medicine, honey was used as "a kind of psychopharmacological agent to treat depression and melancholia, and as a geriatric medicine." It was also used as an antidote for opium overdoses (Uccusic 1987, 38 f.; see Papaver somniferum).

There are three categories of plants that are associated with toxic honey: 1) plants whose nectar or pollen kills bees before they can transform it into honey (e.g. locoweed [Astralagus lentiginosus], Veratrum californicum, Vernonia spp.); 2) plants whose nectar is harmless to bees but when turned into honey becomes toxic/inebriating to humans (e.g. oleander [Nerium oleander], thorn apple [Datura spp.]. angel's trumpet [Brugmansia spp.], mountain laurel [Kalmia spp.], false jasmine [Gelsemium sempervirens], Euphorbia marginata, Serjania lethalis); and 3) known poisonous plants that are harmless to bees and yield edible and often exquisite honey (e.g., Rhustoxicodendron, Metopium toxiferum, Jatropha curcas, Baccharis halimifolia, Ricinus communis) (Morton 1964, 415).

Xenophon (ca. 430-355 B.C.E.) reported in his Anabis that soldiers became inebriated and poisoned by the honey that had been produced from the Pontic rhododendron (Rhododendron ponticum L.) and apparently from a red-flowering oleander (Nerium oleander L.: cf. Rätsch 1995, 267 f.) (Roth et al. 1994, 615). "In modern terms, they 'got high.' . . . This condition did not last long amongst the Greeks and quickly abated" (Rüdiger 1974, 93). The toxicological literature refers to this Pontic (Turkish) honey as "mad honey" or "toxic honey of Asia Minor" (Fühner 1943, 203). This inebriating honey was well known in ancient times (Krause 1926; Plugge 1891), and it may have been involved with the Dionysian frenzies:
In the district on the Pontus, among the people of the Sanni, there is a kind of honey that is known as maenomenon ["mad maker"] because of the insanity it induces. It is thought that this is caused by the flowers of the oleanders [Rhododendron], which abound in the woods. (Pliny 21.77)
In ancient times, it was believed that oleander first came from the land of Colchis (on the Black Sea); it was regarded as a plant of the "witch" Medea (who may have been a Scythian shamaness). Apparently, oleander also had something to do with the wines that were drunk during the Dionysian orgies. Oleander was a popular subject in the wall frescos of Pompeii, a city known for its Bacchic mysteries. Oleander leaves contain the powerful cardiac poison oleandrin, which can be life-threatening for humans and animals because it can paralyze the heart. Also present are digitalis-like glycosides (neriine, nerianthine, adyrin, cotenerin). The milky latex contains salacin and other alkaloids. Although oleander is frequently said to be toxic, the toxicological literature contains no observations of dangerous intoxications resulting from the consumption of the flowers and leaves (Frohne and Pfander 1983, 47).

An alchemical papyrus dated from the late ancient times contains a puzzling recipe made with "mad honey": "Preparation of emerald. 1 part burned copper, 2 parts verdigris, and a corresponding amount of Pontic honey, cook for one hour" (in Hengstl 1978, 272).

Like all later alchemical recipes, this recipe appears to contain secret instructions for a consciousness process associated with the transmutation of matter. The inclusion of psychoactive honey is particularly interesting.

In ancient times, honey was mixed with ground medicinal herbs (such as wormwood [cf. Artemesia absinthium]) and other pharmaceutical substances to produce what were know as "lick agents," a kind of pharmaceutical "hard candy." Some of these may have had psychoactive effects, for example: "A remedy to cool the uterus: hemp is pounded in honey and administered to the vagina. This is a contraction [of the uterus]" (Papyrus Ebers 821 [1550 B.C.E.]; in Manniche 1989, 82).

The Mayans regard honey (cab) as a gift of the bee gods (ah muzen cab), a food from the heavens (Tozzer and Allen 1910, 298 ff.). An indigenous form of apiculture was practiced in the Yucatan in pre-Columbian times (Brunius 1995). In the Yucatan and Selva Lacandona regions (Chiapas), several species of native stingless bees (Family Meliponidae) make their honey from the nectar of specific flowers. The Lacandon know that at certain times of the year (the flowering periods), bees produce types of honey that have psychoactive or inebriating effects, even when consumed in small amounts. As little as one tablespoon is sufficient to produce noticeable effects. I once tried two tablespoons of such honey dissolved in atole (a maize drink) and experienced rather strong feelings of inebriation and extreme good cheer.

The Yucatec Maya have domesticated Melipona beecheii and now keep these bees in special hives (hollowed-out tree trunks) to produce honey (Buchmann and Nabhan 1996). The significance of this honey is more religious and ritual than culinary. It is offered at various planting rites and also is fermented to make balche', which is thus a type of mead (Brunius 1995). In the Yucatan, the honey made from certain vines (Ipomoea spp. and Turbina corymbosa) is called xtabentum of xtabentun (Souza Novelo et al. 1981, 32). Such honey has psychoactive effects and is preferred for making balche'. A liquor known by the same name is produced in the region of Valladolid. This honey is usually harvested in November and December (Brunius 1995, 20).

Certain active constituents in plants can pass into the nectar of the flowers, and the bees metabolize these either not at all or only a little when they produce the honey. For example, the toxic grayanotoxins present in rhododendrons and the tropane alkaloids (especially atropine) found in belladonna flowers can both pass into the honey that is derived from their flowers.

Some species of rhododendron, for example azaleas, contain the toxic terpene andromedotoxin (= grayanotoxin, rhodotoxin).

Some Plants Known to Produce Psychoactive/Toxic Honey

NameBotanical NameReference
aconiteAconitum napellus 
alpine roseRhododendron ferrugineum L.Roth et al. 1994, 613
azaleaRhododendron simsii Planch.Roth et al. 1994, 614 ff.
belladonaAtropa belladonna L.Hazslinksi 1956
euphorbia (Africa)Euphorbia spp.Rüdiger 1974, 93
grass infected with ClavicepsPaspalum plicatulum Michz.
Paspalum unispicatum (Sm.) Nash
Arenas 1987, 289
Greenland teaLedum groenlandicum L.Palmer-Jones 1965
hempCannabisReports by hemp growers
oleanderNerium oleander L.Rätsch 1996a, 267; Roth et al. 1994, 511
paulliniaPaullinia australisMillspaugh 1974, 167
ragwortSenecia jacobaea L.Frohne and Pfänder 1983, 66
rhododendron (Pontic alpine rose)Rhododendron ponticum L.
[syn. Alazea pontica, Heraclea pontica]
Fuhner 1943, 203; Plugge 1981
toéBrugmansia sanguinea 
tutuCoriaria arborea Lindsay
(cf. Coriaria thymifolia)
Palmer-Jones and White 1949
water-hemlockCicuta virosa L.Rüdiger 1974, 93
wild rosemaryLedum palustre L.Ott 1993, 404
xtabentunTurbina corymbosa
Ipomoea triloba L.
Ipomoea spp.
Souza Novelo et al. 1981, 32
yewTaxus baccata L. 

References #
  1. Brunius S. "Facts and Thoughts About Past and Present Maya Traditional Apiculture". Acta Americana. 1995;3(1):5-30.
  2. Buchmann SL, Nabhan GB. "The Survival of Mayan Beekeeping". The Seedhead News. 1996;54:1-3.
  3. Charlton J, Newdick J. Honig. Munich: Irisana. 1996.
  4. Glock JP. Die Symbolik der Bienen und ihrer Produkte in Sage, Dichtung, Kultus, Kunst und Brauchen der Völker. Heidelberg: Th. Groos. 1897.
  5. Hazslinsky B. "Toxische Wirkung eines Honigs der Tollkirsche (Atropa belladonna L.)". Zeitschrift für Bienenforschung 3(5):93-6;3(10):240. 1956.
  6. Hengstl J, Häge G, Kühnert H. (eds.) Griechische Papyri aus Ägypten: Zeugnisse des öffentlichen und privaten Lebens. Munich: Heimeran. 1978.
  7. Huber L. Die neue, nützlichste Bienenzucht. 14th ed. Lahr: M. Schauenburg. 1905.
  8. Krause K. "Uber den Giften Honig des Pontischen Kleinasien". Die Naturwissenschaften. 1926;44(29,10):976-78.
  9. Morton JF. "Honeybee Plants of South Florida". Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society. 1964;77:415-36.
  10. Palmer-Jones T. "Poisonous Honey Overseas and in New Zealand". New Zealand Medical Journal. 1965;64:631-7.
  11. Palmer-Jones T, White EP. "A Recent Outbreak of Honey Poisoning". New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology. 1949;31:246-56.
  12. Plugge PC. "Giftiger Honig von Rhododendron Ponticum". Archiv der Pharmazie. 1891;229:554-59.
  13. Ransome HM.The Sacred Bee in Ancient Times and Folklore. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Co. 1937.
  14. Reichel-Dolmatoff G. "The Loom of Life: A Kogi Principle of Integration". Journal of Latin American Lore 1978;4(1)5-27.
  15. Roscher WH.Nektar und Ambrosia. Mit einem Anhang über die Grundbedeutung der Aphrodite und Athene. Leipzig: B.G. Teubner. 1883.
  16. Rüdiger W.Ihr Name ist Apis: Kleine Kulturgeschichte der Bienen. Illertissen: Mack. 1974.
  17. Schwartz HF. "Stingless Bees (Meliponidae) of the Western Hemisphere". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 1948;90:1-536.
  18. Souza Novelo N.Plantas meliferas y poliniferas que viven en Yucatán. Mérida: El Povenir. 1940.
  19. Souza Novelo N, Molina VMS, Vasquez AB.Plantas meliferas y poliniferas de Yucatán. Mexico City: Fondo Editotial Yucatan. 1981.
  20. Tozzer AM, Allen GM. "Animal Figures in the Maya Codicies".Papers of the Peabody Museum (Cambridge). 1910;4(3):277-32.
  21. Uccusic P. Doktor Biene. Heyene. 1987.
  22. Valli E, Summers D. Honey Hunters of Nepal. London: Thames & Hudson. 1988.
  23. White JW Jr. "Honey". In The Hive and the Honey Bee. ed. RA Grout.Hamilton, Ill: Dadant and Sons. 1966;369-406.
Revision History #
  • 1.1 - Apr 16, 2008 - Erowid - Corrected several typos, formatted text as per original hardcopy, fixed errors to bibliography..
  • 1.0 - Apr 22, 2008 - Erowid - Transcribed by Justin Case, html'd and published on
  • 1.0 - 2005 - Rätsch - Published in The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants.