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Lit L, Schweitzer JB, Oberbauer AM. 
“Handler beliefs affect scent detection dog outcomes”. 
Anim Cogn. 2011 Jan 3.
Our aim was to evaluate how human beliefs affect working dog outcomes in an applied environment. We asked whether beliefs of scent detection dog handlers affect team performance and evaluated relative importance of human versus dog influences on handlers' beliefs. Eighteen drug and/or explosive detection dog/handler teams each completed two sets of four brief search scenarios conditions. Handlers were falsely told that two conditions contained a paper marking scent location human influence. Two conditions contained decoy scents food/toy to encourage dog interest in a false location dog influence. Conditions were 1 control 2 paper marker 3 decoy scent and 4 paper marker at decoy scent. No conditions contained drug or explosive scent any alerting response was incorrect. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used with search condition as the independent variable and number of alerts as the dependent variable. Additional nonparametric tests compared human and dog influence. There were 225 incorrect responses, with no differences in mean responses across conditions. Response patterns differed by condition. There were more correct no alert responses searches in conditions without markers. Within marked conditions, handlers reported that dogs alerted more at marked locations than other locations. Handlers' beliefs that scent was present potentiated handler identification of detection dog alerts. Human more than dog influences affected alert locations. This confirms that handler beliefs affect outcomes of scent detection dog deployments.
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