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Naranjo C, Shulgin AT, Sargent T. 
“Evaluation of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine MDA as an adjunct to psychotherapy”. 
Med Pharmacol Exp Int J Exp Med. 1967;17(4):359-64.
The alkaloid mescaline la, the principal active component of the cactus Peyoil Lophophora williamsii, is one of the oldest simplest, and best studied of all the known psychotomimetic chemicals. lts close resemblance to the natural neurotransmitter nor- epinephrine II has suggested that the mechanism of function of these two materials may have some points in common in their action upon the human nervous system. A chemical of intermediate structure, 3,4-dimethoxyphenethyiamine DMPEA, I b, lacks one of methoxyl groups of mescaline. Interest in his base was kindled by the observation of its presence in the urine of schizophrenic patients, but not in that of normal subjects Friedhoff and Van Winkle [6]. This chemical is most probably not an endogenous psychology, for evaluation of it in human subjects by Hollister and Friedhoff [8] and Shulgin et al. [16] revealed neither psychotropic nor sympathomimetic properties.
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