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Oxley JD, Cottrell AM, Adams S, Gillatt D. 
“Ketamine cystitis as a mimic of carcinoma in situ”. 
Histopathology. 2009 Dec 16;55(6):705-8.
AIMS: To describe the histopathological features of a series of patients with ketamine-related cystitis. METHODS AND

RESULTS: Seventeen patients with ketamine-related cystitis, who had undergone biopsy, were identified and reviewed. Twelve showed ulceration with significant urothelial atypia. In 10 of these, immunohistochemistry was performed 9/10 had high p53 immunoreactivity and 7/10 had moderate to high levels of Ki67 reactivity, but all were negative for cytokeratin 20. CONCLUSIONS: Ketamine can lead to reactive urothelial changes that can mimic carcinoma in situ, but the long-term cancer risk remains unknown.

Key Words: Ketamine Urinary Health
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