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Desmarchelier C, Gurni A, Ciccia G, Giulietti AM. 
“Ritual and medicinal plants of the Ese'ejas of the Amazonian rainforest (Madre de Dios, Perú)”. 
J Ethnopharmacol. 1996 May 31;52(1):45-51.
The Ese'eja is a hunter-fisher-gatherer tribe of Amerindians which occupies the south-eastern part of Perú. Their culture cannot be disassociated from religious beliefs. Disease can be caused by accident, distraction or indolence, or by evil powers. These evil powers come either from the direct action of a harmful shaman or by interactions with the Devil. A description of shamanic practices is given to elucidate the position of health practices in Ese'eja culture, which includes the use of medicinal and ritual plants. Aspects of ayahuasca (Banisteriopsis caapi (Spruce) Morton, Malpighiaceae) ritual in shaman initiation and in healing rituals are presented. Diagnosis and treatment include invocation to the ayahuasca spirit. Plants used as medicine or invoked for healing are presented.
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