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Campbell H, Cline W, Evans M, Lloyd J, Peck AW. 
“Comparison of the effects of dexamphetamine and 1-benzylpiperazine in former addicts”. 
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1973 Oct 11;6(3):170-6.
The subjective, behavioural and autonomic effects of dexamphetamine 10 mg, 1-benzylpiperazine 100 mg and lactose dummy were compared in a group of 18 former amphetamine addicts. All subjects received the three preparations according to a balanced design under double blind conditions. 1-Benzylpiperazine and dexamphctamine produced indistinguishable subjective effects and both were liked. The effects of both compounds differed significantly from the effects following the dummy preparation. Increases in pulse rate and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were similar following the two active compounds, but 1-benzylpiperazine produced pupillary dilation whereas no significant change in pupil size followed dummy or dexamphetamine. It was concluded that 1-benzylpiperazine is a compound liable to abuse by an addict population, and that this type of study might be of value in predicting abuse liability of other new drugs.
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