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Stohler R, Rommelspacher H, Ladewig D, Dammann G. 
“[Beta-carbolines (harman/norharman) are increased in heroin dependent patients]”. 
Ther Umsch. 1993 Mar 20;50(3):178-81.
Endogenous substances resulting from interactions between alcohol and possibly opioid metabolites and neurotransmitters (dopamine, indolamines) are mediators of the pathochemical process towards dependence. Beta-carbolines are increased in alcoholics and--according to our own results--in heroin-addicts. Still unclear is the impact of other psychopathological disturbances like states of anxiety or depression; unclear is also, if it has to be interpreted as state, trait or residual marker of the dependence syndrome.
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