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Kleven MS, Woolverton WL, Seiden LS. 
“Evidence that both intragastric and subcutaneous administration of methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA) produce serotonin neurotoxicity in rhesus monkeys”. 
Brain Res. 1989;488(1-2):121-5.
It has been demonstrated that repeated, subcutaneous administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) to rats, guinea pigs, and squirrel monkeys produces long-lasting depletions of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) in several brain regions. Since evidence of degenerating 5-HT neurons has been observed in the rat brain following MDMA injections, it is likely that these depletions are due to neurotoxicity similar to that observed with other substituted amphetamines. The purpose of the present study was to determine if MDMA produces similar evidence of neurotoxicity in rhesus monkeys when administered by either the intragastric (i.g.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) route. Administration of MDMA (5.0 mg/kg/12 h x 4 days) by either i.g. or s.c. routes depleted 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in various brain regions 2 weeks after the last injection. Further, a significant decrease in [3H]5-HT uptake sites in the hippocampus was observed in monkeys treated with MDMA by the i.g. route. Reductions in uptake sites did not achieve statistical significance when drug was administered s.c. The results suggest that repeated administration of MDMA produces long-lasting, potentially neurotoxic effects on central 5-HT neurons in primates and does so when given orally.
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