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Zvolensky MJ, Lejuez CW, Eifert GH. 
“Prediction and control: operational definitions for the experimental analysis of anxiety”. 
Behav Res Ther. 2000 Jul;38(7):653-63.
Prediction and/or control of threatening events generally results in less pronounced anxiety-related responding compared to when those same events are unpredictable or uncontrollable. For this reason, researchers have suggested that predictability and controllability may modulate anxiety-related responding, thereby serving an important role in the development and progression of anxiety pathology. Despite the recognized importance of prediction and control for anxiety, these variables have not been defined or operationalized in a uniform and unambiguous manner. In this article, we propose an operational definition that defines and distinguishes prediction and control in terms of the onset and offset of an aversive event. This operationalization is aimed at facilitating experimental-based efforts to explore the independent and interactive effects of the prediction and control on anxious responding.
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