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Fantegrossi WE, Winger G, Woods JH, Woolverton WL, Coop A. 
“Reinforcing and discriminative stimulus effects of 1-benzylpiperazine and trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine in rhesus monkeys”. 
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005 Feb 14;77(2):161-8.
1-Benzylpiperazine (BZP) and 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP) are two designer drugs that are often sold in combination tablets via the internet. The discriminative stimulus properties and reinforcing effects of these compounds have not previously been assessed in laboratory primates. In this regard, the reinforcing effects of BZP and TFMPP (alone, and in combination) were assessed via intravenous self-administration in rhesus monkeys previously trained to self-administer cocaine, while the discriminative stimulus effects of these compounds were determined in rhesus monkeys trained to discriminate amphetamine (AMPH) from saline. BZP was an effective reinforcer in self-administration tests, and appeared to induce long-lasting direct effects on behavior following sessions where BZP intakes were large. Additionally, BZP occasioned AMPH-appropriate responding in a dose-dependent manner, and produced full generalization in all monkeys tested. In contrast, TFMPP was not self-administered by any subjects and occasioned essentially no AMPH-appropriate responding at any dose tested. Non-contingent TFMPP administration had direct effects on behavior and abolished subsequent cocaine-maintained responding. Similarly, self-administration of various ratios of BZP:TFMPP combinations engendered less responding than did BZP alone. The present results suggest that BZP has abuse liability of the amphetamine type, but that such effects are not shared by TFMPP.
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