Erowid References Database
Sala M, Braida D.
“Endocannabinoids and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) interaction”.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2005 Jun;81(2):407-16.
Conclusion: Cannabis and MDMA are two of the most widely used recreational drugs. This review considered their neuropsychologicaleffects, when taken singly or in combination,in humans or animals. In humans, prolonged use of MDMAand cannabis together is associated with a variety ofpsychological problems, including elevated impulsiveness, anxiety, somatic complaints, obsessive–compulsive patterns,and psychotic behavior. It is not clear to what extentthe combination of MDMA and cannabis contributes to fatalmotor vehicles accidents though an additive adverse effecton visual perception in MDMA/D9-THC users has beenreported. Neurocognitive deficits (memory, learning, wordfluency, speed of processing, and manual dexterity) inseveral brain areas (hippocampus, frontal lobe) have beenreported in those taking both drugs. Endocrine abnormalitiesin MDMA users have been closely related to their use ofcannabis too. A recent study investigated whether coadministeredcannabinoids and MDMA in rats affected thelong-term neurotoxic properties of MDMA through ahypothermic action, an antioxidant action, or both. Veryfew studies have set out to clarify the consequences ofchronic exposure to concomitant cannabinoids and MDMAfor their abuse liability in animals. MDMA showed somecross-discriminative stimulus effects with cannabinoids (D9-THC), and it has been demonstrated in rats that theendocannabinoid system is involved in MDMA selfadministration. However, these findings have not been confirmed by microdialysis studies in mesolimbic structureswhich might further clarify this interaction. These findings may help explain the use of marijuana and MDMA together by polydrug users in order toovercome the unpleasant effect which often arise as theinitial euphoria dissipates. It has recently been confirmed,using a CPP task, that the endocannabinoid system is involved when the reinforcing properties of MDMA, given centrally, were blocked by pretreatment with SR 141716.
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