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Back-Madruga C, Boone KB, Chang L, Grob CS, Lee A, Nations H, Poland RE. 
“Neuropsychological effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) in recreational users”. 
Clin Neuropsychol. 2003 Nov;17(4):446-459.
While neuropsychological studies on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) users have been emerging, results have been inconsistent, possibly due to methodological issues. The current study examined the performance of 22 recreational MDMA users compared to 28 age, education, and IQ comparable normal control subjects on a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Results revealed no significant differences in cognitive functioning between the MDMA users and normal controls. However, greater use of MDMA was associated with poorer scores on several measures of nonverbal memory, and greater frequency users (> or = 50 times) evidenced significantly lower scores on 2 of 3 nonverbal memory tests compared to lesser frequency users (< 50 times). Our results suggest that a subgroup of MDMA patients, specifically heavy MDMA users, evidence declines in nonverbal (visual) memory, however, other cognitive areas appear to be spared.
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