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Gorman EM, Carroll RT. 
“Substance abuse and HIV: considerations with regard to methamphetamines and other recreational drugs for nursing practice and research”. 
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2000;11(2):51-62.
Substance use continues to be closely associated with both HIV infection and treatment considerations in all at-risk populations. Among those groups heretofore not well characterized epidemiologically or clinically are those dual-risk men who have sex with other men (MSM) and use and/or inject drugs. Of particular current concern with regard to drug-using MSM is the growth in popularity of a group of recreational or so-called party drugs associated with specific social and sexual environments and networks. Chief among these drugs are hallucinogens, such as MDMA, ketamine, and GHB, and stimulants, such as cocaine, amphetamines, and methamphetamine. Increased methamphetamine use by MSM is particularly alarming because of its reported associations with high-risk injecting and sexual behaviors. Preliminary data are reported from an ethnographic exploration of MSM methamphetamine users in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Case studies drawn from the data illustrate the complex and variable patterns of methamphetamine use among MSM. Finally, implications for nursing are discussed, and 'upstream nursing' is suggested as a means of patient advocacy for HIV nurses working with substance-using populations.
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