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Finnegan KT, Calder L, Clikeman J, Wei S, Karler R. 
“Effects of L-type calcium channel antagonists on the serotonin-depleting actions of MDMA in rats”. 
Brain Res. 1993;603(1):134-8.
The calcium channel antagonists verapamil nifedipine and flunarizine all increased the threshold for convulsions induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate in rats. By contrast, only flunarizine blocked the long-term serotonin-depleting effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. Flunarizine was also the only drug that antagonized methamphetamine-induced stereotypy. These findings suggest that calcium influx through L-type channels does not participate in the neurotoxic mechanism of MDMA, and that the neuroprotective actions of flunarizine are probably related to its anti-dopaminergic activity.
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