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Graham JDP, Khalidi AI. 
“The actions of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (L.S.D. 25). Part 2. Central actions”. 
J. Fac. Med. Iraq. 1954;18:35.

PROBLEM: In a previous publication, the authors reported on the effects of LSD in experimental animals, normal human beings and psychotic patients. The present paper is concerned with the central effects of LSD.

RESULTS: l. The spinal cord: Reflexes such as the knee jerk become very brisk under LSD. The orgastic reflex is difficult to obtain, but this maybe due to loss of concentrationo Considerable disturbance of sensory perception.

2. The medulla: The emetic centre, the cardiovascular centre, the respiratory centre and the vagal nuclei are all obviously stimulated.

3. The mid-brain, cerebellum, etc.: When LSD intoxication is at its peak, ataxia occurs quite frequently.

4. The hypothalamic region: Autonomic disturbances give rise to increases in B.P. and pulse rate, flushing and pallor, sweating or shivering, salivation or dryness of the mouth, dilatation of the pupils and an anti-diuretic action. The time at which these phenomena set in varies but they frequently precede the onset of cortical effects. They persist for some hours but do not last as long as the mental effects.

5. The cortex: The distinction between objective motor phenomena and subjective states related to effects on sensory and association mechanisms is clinically apparent. a) Motor effects: In many cases there is motor disturbance with a phase of increased activity and a degree of muscular incoordination. This may be consistent if the patient becomes quiet and withdrawn but may become marked with tremor, jactitation, ataxia, heightened reflex response, trismus, forced laughter and spasm of the throat muscles. b) Psychic effects: A much shorter latency period was noted than that mentioned in the reports of other investigators. Consciousness is no5 usually clouded. The sense of time is usually upset, but not so often the discrimination of space and size. There may be a marked tendency to introspection. Ideation is always affected. "Verbal diarrhoea" may be pronounced. Behaviour is abnormal. It may be euphoric with restlessness or euphoric in a quiet placid way. Perception is elways affected. Vision is usually sharpened but there may be distortion of out line and misjudgement of perspective. Illusions are frequent. Hearing, taste, smell and touch may be abnormal. The most marked illusion is the distortion of body image. Personality is less affected by LSD than by mescaline. Split personality may occur. The mental effects of LSD were studied in 6 normal subjects and 6 psychotics. 0.001 mg/kg LSD was given orally.
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