Plants - Drugs Mind - Spirit Freedom - Law Arts - Culture Library  
Erowid References Database
Maurer HH, Bickeboeller-Friedrich J, Kraemer T, Peters FT. 
“Toxicokinetics and analytical toxicology of amphetamine-derived designer drugs (`Ecstasy')”. 
Toxicol Lett. 2000;112-113:133-142.
The phase I and II metabolites of the designer drugs methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), R,S-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), R,S-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDE), R, S-benzodioxazolylbutanamine (BDB) and R, S-N-methyl-benzodioxazolylbutanamine (MBDB) were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromotography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in urine and liver microsomes of humans and rats. Two overlapping pathways could be postulated: (1) demethylenation followed by catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) catalyzed methylation and/or glucuronidation/sulfatation; (2) N-dealkylation, deamination and only for MDA, MDMA, MDE oxidation to the corresponding benzoic acid derivatives conjugated with glycine. Demethylenation was mainly catalyzed by CYP2D1/6 or CYP3A2/4, but also by CYP independent mechanisms. In humans, MDMA and MBDB could also be demethylenated by CYP1A2. N-demethylation was mainly catalyzed by CYP1A2, N-deethylation by CYP3A2/4. Based on these studies, GC-MS procedures were developed for the toxicological analysis in urine and plasma. Finally, toxicokinetic parameters are reviewed.
Comments and Responses to this Article
Submit Comment
[ Cite HTML ]