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Smith JM, Misiak H. 
“Critical Flicker Frequency (CFF) and Psychotropic Drugs in Normal Human Subiects - A Review”. 
Psychopharmacology. 1976;47(2):175-82.
A review of critical flicker frequency (CFF) and psychotropic drugs was presented. CFF is defined as the point at which a flickering light gives rise to the subjective sensation of a steady light. Measurement of this frequency was used to monitor the CNS changes induced by various drugs. The review presents 33 studies where CFF was employed with non psychiatric subJects receivirg acute oral doses of: chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, prochlorperazim, dipiperon, reserpine, benzquinamide, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, emylcamate, gamaquil, meprobamate, trioxazine, desmethylimipramine, imipramine, amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, methamphetamine, LSD-25, marijuana and its extract, psilocybin, amo-aprocyclo-hexo-pheno-secobarbital and barbital, chloral hydrate and glutethimide. Stimulants increased and hypnotics decreased CFF. Neuroleptics and anxiolytics equally produced no change or a decrease in CFF. Anti-depressants had no effect and LSD decreased and marijuana increased CFF. Caffeine, nicotine and alcohol affect CFF ard should be cortrolled for CFF. Sensitivity can be increased by the lowering of light-dark phase ratios. 19/33 Studies were double blind and only 8/33 utilised an artificial pupil for control over drug induced pupil diameter changes which affect CFF test. Only 4/33 employed both controls. 0/33 Controlled for instructional set and attitudinal bias. Further studies should employ adequate controls when utilising CFF in studies of psychotropic drugs.
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