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Messiha FS. 
“Dopamine, the Psyche, and Extrapyramidal Disorders”. 
Clin.Pharmacol.Ther.. 1977;21(1):111.
Indirect evidence exists for the involvement of dopaminergic mechanism(s) in certain neurological disorders of the extrapyramidal system as well as in the motor disturbances associated with drug-produced psychoses in man. Accordingly, urinary excretion of dopamine (DA) and some of its major metabolites were determined in patients with drug-induced Parkinson-like syndrome motor hyperkinesias and dyskinesias, as well as in healthy volunteers, prior to and during administration of psychotomimetics, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and Cannabis sativa (CS). Urinary outputs of DA and homovanillic acid were markedly decreased from normal values in patients with drug-induced parkinsonism compared to a marked rise in DA excretion in cases with motor hyperkinesias and dyskinesias, Similarly, results derived from animal models for chlorpromazine-induced dyakinesias in monkeys show an increase in concentrations of DA and homovanillic-acid in urine and cerebrospinal fluid, respectively, Administration of LSD to normal volunteers resulted in a significant decrease in DA excretion during periods of altered behavior compared to administration of CS, which exerted little change on psychic behavior and urinary output of DA. The results are discussed in the context of the role of DA in neurologic disease of the extrapyramidal system causing psychiatric symptoms.
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