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Luellmann H, Luellmann Rauch R, Wassermann O. 
“Lipidosis Induced ByAmiphiphilic Drugs”. 
Biochem.Pharmacol.. 1978;27(8):1103-08.
Lipidosis induced by amphiphilic cationic drugs is reviewed. Drug-induced lipidosis is discussed in the context of a drug side effect and as a cytological phenomenon which might be a useful tool in cell biology. Chloroquine, amiodarone, perhexiline "and 4,4'-diethylaminoethoxybexestrol (DAK) have been shown to induce lipidosis-like cellular alterations in humans as well as in animals. Clinical symptoms include visual impairment due to retinal alterations (chloroquine) and corneal opacities (chloroquine, amiodarone); hepatosplenomegaly and abnormalities of liver function (DAK, perhexiline) and neuromyopathies (chloroquine, perhexiline). A causal relationship between the clinical symptoms and associated lipidosis-like cellular alterations seen in humans seems very likely. Inducers of generalized lipidosis as demonstrated in animals include imipramine, clomipramine, iprindole, 1-chloro-amitriptyline, zimelidine, clozapine, chlorphentermine, fenfluramine, triparanol, AY-9944, azacosterol, chlorcyclizine, AC-3579, mepacrine. Drugs with low lipidosis-inducing activity in whole animals but having pronounced activity in cultured fibroblasts include chlorpromazine, amitriptyline, noxiptiline and LSD. The introduction of halogen atoms into the hydrophobic moiety of drug molecules may enhance the lipidosis-inducing potency. Druginduced lipidosis may also prove useful for studying the cytological events of lysosomal storage of endogenous material, Druginduced lipidosis does not appear to be an appropriate experimental model for studying the inherited lipidoses of man.
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