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Holsten F. 
“Flashbacks: Clinical And Social Significance 1 1/2-4 Years After The First Admission”. 
T Norske Laegeforen. 1976;96(15):875-878.
Abstract
THE MATERIAL PRESENTED IS BASED ON 91 YOUNG DRUG ABUSERS TREATED IN NEEVENGARDEN HOSPITAL FROM 1971 TO 1973. 'FLASHBACKS' WERE EXPERIENCED BY 53 PATIENTS (58%) PRIOR TO, OR AT THE TIME OF THE FIRST ADMISSION. TWO PATIENTS EXPERIENCED 'FLASHBACKS' AFTER HAVING TAKEN CANNABIS ONLY. ONE PATIENT HAD 'FLASHBACKS' AFTER HAVING HALLUCINATED ON LYNOL. NO CLEAR CONNECTION WAS FOUND BETWEEN AGE, SEX, PERIOD OF DRUG ABUSE AND NUMBER OF HALLUCINOGENIC EXPERIENCES AND 'FLASHBACKS'. THE 'FLASHBACKS' WERE GROUPED INTO FOUR CLASSES DEPENDING ON SEVERITY AND PERSONAL DISCOMFORT.- THERE WAS NO CLEAR CONNECTION BETWEEN CLASS OF 'FLASHBACKS' AND NUMBER OF HALLUCINOGENIC EXPERIENCES. THE ‘FLASHBACKS' SEEMED TO BE BASED ON A PREVIOUS HALLUCINOGENIC EXPERIENCE AND WERE NOT DRUG SPECIFIC. IN A PERSONAL FOLLOW UP, 1.S TO 4 YEARS LATER. IT WAS FOUND THAT 29 OF THE 53 PATIENTS STILL HAD THEIR 'FLASHBACKS' BUT NON TO A MORE TOLERABLE DEGREE. DURING THE OBSERVATION PERIOD 6 NEW PATIENTS HAD DEVELOPED 'FLASHBACKS'. NO PATIENT HAD DEVELOPED PERSISTING PSYCHOTIC SYMPTOMATOLOGY. THE CLINICAL AND SOCIAL OUTCOME HAS BETTER FOR THE PATIENTS WHO HAD NOT DEVELOPED 'FLASHBACKS'. THIS WORK CONFIRMS THAT HALLUCINOGENIC DRUGS USED BY YOUNG AND IMMATURE PERSONS UNDER DIFFICULT AND INSECURE CONDITIONS CAN GIVE RISE TO BOTH ACUTE AND LATE SIDE EFFECTS. WARNING IS GIVEN AGAINST ALL KINDS OF HORROR PROPAGANDA ABOUT DRUG ABUSE' WHICH CAN IT ITSELF GIVE RISE TO THE NEGATIVE EXPECTATIONS OF THE ABUSER AND EXPOSE HIM TO INTOLERABLE SIDE EFFECTS. TOO STRONG ATTENTION TO THE FLASHBACKS' REACTIONS ALONE CAN GIVE THE SAME RESULT. THE 'FLASHBACKS: REACTIONS OUGHT TO BE LOOKED UPON AS ONE OF MANY MEANINGFUL COMPLICATIONS IN THE DIFFICULT PERSONAL AND SOCIAL SITUATION OF THE DRUG ABUSER. KEYWORDS CANNABIS, HALLUCINATION, LYSERGIDE, PSYCHOSIS, SOCIAL-BEHAVIOR, ADYERSE-DRUG-REACTION, FLASH-BACK. DRUG-ABUSE. INTOXICATION, INHALATIONAL. 53 OUT Of 91 CASES, 1 172 YR5 FOLLOW UP, 91 PATIENTS.
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