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Grob CS, Poland RE, Chang L, Ernst T. 
“Psychobiologic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in humans: methodological considerations and preliminary observations”. 
Behav Brain Res. 1996;73(1-2):103-7.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a phenethylamine with potent effects on serotonergic neurotransmission which has been the object of controversy over its potential as a therapeutic adjunct versus its possible risks for causing neurotoxic injury. This paper discusses the background, methodology and preliminary findings of the first FDA approved Phase I study prospectively evaluating the effects of MDMA administration in humans. Six subjects with prior experience with MDMA were administered two different dosages of MDMA and an inactive placebo utilizing a randomized, double-blind methodologic design. Dosages from 0.25 to 1.0 mg/kg, p.o., were administered. All subjects tolerated the procedures without any overt evidence of physical discomfort or psychological distress. MDMA produced a modest increase in heart rate and blood pressure. The threshold dose for the stimulation of ACTH and prolactin appeared to be between 0.5 and 0.75 mg/kg, with the two higher doses clearly stimulating both ACTH and prolactin. Methodology for assessing MDMA's effects on serotonergic neurotransmission is discussed.
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