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Kaymakcalan S. 
“Tolerance to and dependence on cannabis.”. 
Bull.Narcotics. 1973;25(4):39-47.
Although cannabis has been described as producing neither tolerance nor physical dependence the Author cites evidence to suggest that certainly in Indian some ganja and charas smokers consume very large amounts of cannabis and it is difficult to accept this consumption unless some degree of tolerance develops. Similarly tolerance to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been demonstrated not only in mammals but also - in fish and birds. In dogs there is no uniformity in all effects of , tolerance. Tolerance which develops in THC is not specific for cannabinoids and THC tolerant rats are also tolerant to morphine and alcohol. Tolerance to LSD does not present cross tolerance to THC. Dependence on cannabis has been shown in chronic experi - ments with rhesus monkeys, with psychological and physical dep - endence being clearly indicated. Six monkeys received initial doses of 0.1 mg/kg THC increasing to 0.4 mg/kg through an i.v. catheter. These injections were given automatically but on discontinuation of automatic injections two of the six monkeys then initiated and maintained self administration of THC. Development of physical dependence in monkeys might not seem applicable to man since it is known that marihuana smokers can easily give up without showing abstinence signs. However,this may not be true for hashish smokers have been reported to show withdrawal symptoms such as sweating, disturbed sleep, fine tremors, hypotony, anxiety and depression lasting for five to seven days.
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