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Wilson J G. 
“Present Status of Drugs as Teratogens in Man.”. 
Teratology. 1973;7(1):3-15.
A survey of the literature concerned with drugs known or implicated as teratogens in humans has been made. Using information based on incidence of malformations in offspring of mothers who have taken drugs in the 1st trimester of pregnancy, known and potential teratogenic drugs have been divided into the following groups:- (1) Those definitely teratogenic. The most important of these is thalidomide. Androgens and syn - thetic progestins have caused masculinization of female babies, and in utero exposure to diethylstilboestrol is thought to induce development of adenocarcinoma in some young women. Cortico - steroidsal though highly teratogenic in rodentshave little effect in humans. Folic acid antagonists produced 70% abortion and 28% malformations in 2 groups studied. (2) Those suspected of terato - genicity. The anticonvulsants, particularly phenobarbital, di - phenylhydantoin and trimethadione, have been associated with facial clefts and cardiac defects. Some neurotropic-anorexogenic agents (dexamphetamine, phenmetrazine) and oral hypoglycemics (tolbutamide) may be responsible for malformations but evidence is not conclusive. Alkylating agents have produced multiple mal - formations (e.g. mercaptopurine, busulfan, cyclophosphamide), but use is restricted, they are used as 'life-saversē and generally in - duce abortion. (3) Possible teratogens. Aspirin, antitubercular drugs (ethionamide, isoniazid, PAS), antibiotics (streptomycin, chloramphenicol), quinine, imipramine and insulin may cause malformations under some conditions. (4) LSD, sulfonamides, meclizine, cortisone, tranquilizers and antiemetics are thought to carry little risk of teratogenicity. Many drugs cause malformations in laboratory animals, but in normal dosage appear to have little effect on human embryos. But although drug-induced congenital defects account for only a small percentage of the total, it is important that drug-drug, drug - environment etc. interactions'oe studied and better teratogenicity screening employed.
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