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van Heijst A. 
“Ecstasy intoxication and gastric lavage”. 
J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1999;37(3):345.
In the 1980s, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) appeared on the Dutch market. The popular use of MDMA and MDMA-analogs (commonly known as ecstasy) spread quickly in the second half of the 1980s, especially at large-scale dance events. After prohibition in 1988, the ecstasy market became 'polluted,' adding the extra risk factor to its use. The Dutch government showed concern, and the Health Department initiated a research program. The Utrecht University Addiction Research Institute (CVO) conducted a socio-epidemiological study into the nature and extent of, and the risks involved in, ecstasy use at dance events. More than one thousand respondents, ranging in age from 14-46 yrs, participated in the study. This article focuses on the methodology and results of the study. Applied methods included observations, written questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and urine sampling. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)
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