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Ugland HG, Krogh M, Rasmussen KE. 
“Automated determination of 'Ecstasy' and amphetamines in urine by SPME and capillary gas chromatography after propylchloroformate derivatisation”. 
J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1999 Mar;19(3-4):463-75.
The determination of amphetamines and their methylenedioxylated analogs in urine by propylchloroformate derivatisation and automated solid-phase microextraction is described. The urine sample was adjusted to pH 10.8 and added propylchloroformate reagent and an internal standard. Derivatisation resulted in water-stable carbamates which were automatically extracted by solid-phase microextraction. A fiber coated with polydimethylsiloxane was inserted into the urine matrix and agitated for 16 min. The fibre with the extracted carbamates was injected into the heated split-splitless injection port of the gas chromatograph where the analytes were evaporated at 300 degrees C, separated on a methylsilicone capillary column and detected by either a nitrogen phosphorous detector or by mass spectrometry. The method was shown to be highly reproducible and robust with respect to variations in the urine matrices. The detection limits were 5 ng/ml(-1) of methamphetamine, MDMA and MDEA and 15 ng/ml(-1) of amphetamine and MDA in urine. The method is a solvent free, automated alternative to traditional methods for determination of the amphetamine and their methylendioxylated analogs in urine.
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