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Geiger RS. 
“Effects of LSD-25, serotonin and sera from schizophrenic patients on adult mammalian brain cultures”. 
J. Neuropsychiat.. 1960;1:185.
LSD in a concentration of 0.0002-0.001 mcg/ml and serotonin in concentration of 0.5-2.0 mcg/ml were added to the supernatant of mammalian cultures of neurons and glia. Immediately thereafter time-lapse microphotography was commenced. . LSD has a visible action on structural elements of neurons in culture (e.g. the nucleus showed increased optical density, enlarged and became irregular in shape). The changes are reversible, but prolonged exposure of the highest concentration may produce chromatolysis. . Serotonin had a marked effect on cytoplasmic pulsatile movements in the neurons (e.g. rhythmic expansion and concentration of the whole perikaryon with massive rhythmic pumping movement of the neuron). Irreversible changes occurred in certain neurons after prolonged exposure to serotonin. The nerve cell might undergo chromatolysis and degenerate. . Sera from schizophrenic patients caused changes in the morphology of the neuron and the nature of the cytoplasm (e.g. Nissl granules appeared more aggregated, the cytoplasm of the neurons showed increased pulsatile and pumping movements and boutons appeared more dense). . Brain extract with Tyrode's solution added to the supernatant of the culture prevented longterm changes caused by schizophrenic serum. . The changes in the neurons brought about by LSD, serotonin and schizophrenic sera vary in degree with different types of neurons and seem to depend also on the area from which the cells derive.
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