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Hoffer A, Callbeck MJ. 
“Drug-induced schizophrenia”. 
J.ment.Sci.. 1960;106:138.
A female nurse, aged 35, received 100 mcg. LSD orally after 2 days pretreatment with penicillamine. Possibly penicillamine modifies the LSD effect because it changes in vitro the (psychotomimetic acting) adrenochrome into a non-psychotomimetic substance (the psychic effect of LSD is associated with increase of adrenochrome in plasma). In contrast to 2 previous experiments with LSD alone, the developing "psychosis" was characterized by loss of affect and inability to relate to others. While thinking and concentration disorders lasted 2-4 days, the lack of affect was normalized only after several weeks. Autonomic symptoms, expecially feeling of coldness, miosis, dryness of the mucosa and skin lasted also for a long time. Sympathomimetics improved the symptoms, e.g. dexedrine improved the ability to have contact, and decreased the discomfort, methedrine caused a feeling of warmth. Increased use of sympathetic amines (acceleration of destruction by penicillamine) plus increased release of them (by LSD) caused a central and peripheral depletion of adrenalin and noradrenalin. The peripheral lack of amine would account for the vasoconstriction and lack of secretion. Central depletion might account for the internal coldness, pinpoint pupils and lack of emotion." A similar weakening of the LSD effect for 2 weeks was experienced by Dr H Osmond after 16 mg. adrenolution orally. The state produced by penicillamine plus LSD or adrenolutin is an interesting model-schizophrenia. Flattening of affect is a significant feature of schizophrenia. . Comment: It is not immediately understandable and does not result from the descriptions of the authors why a peripheral lack of catecholamines should cause vasoconstriction and dryness of skin and mucosa.
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