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Ortuno J, Pizarro N, Farre M, Mas M, Segura J, Cami J, Brenneisen R, de la Torre R. 
“Quantification of 3,4-methylenedioxymetamphetamine and its metabolites in plasma and urine by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection”. 
J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci App. 1999 Feb 19;723(1-2):221-32.
A gas chromatographic method with nitrogen-phosphorus detection involving a solid-liquid extraction phase was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) in plasma. A modification of this method was validated for the analysis of MDMA, MDA, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA) and, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine (HMA) in urine. Under the analytical conditions described, the limits of detection in plasma and urine were less than 1.6 microg/l and 47 microg/l, respectively, for all the compounds studied. Good linearity was observed in the concentration range evaluated in plasma (5-400 microg/l) and urine (100-2000 microg/l) for all compounds tested. The recoveries obtained from plasma were 85.1% and 91.6% for MDMA and MDA, respectively. Urine recoveries were higher than 90% for MDMA and MDA, 74% for HMMA, and 64% for HMA. Methods have been successfully used in the assessment of plasma and urine concentrations of MDMA and its main metabolites in samples from clinical studies in healthy volunteers.
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