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Bailly D. 
“Neuropsychiatric disorders induced by MDMA ('Ecstasy')”. 
Encephale. 1999 Nov-Dec;25(6):595-602.
If neurotoxicity of MDMA (ecstasy) is now well documented in animals, it is not the same in humans. MDMA intoxication puts the problem of its possible link with the serotonin syndrome and the neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Neuropathological consequences following MDMA intake have been reported, including hemorrhaging and cerebral infarction, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, and acute inflammatory CNS disease. However, the physiopathology of these complications remains unclear. In the same way, there have been various reports that have attributed MDMA to precipitating the onset of a wide range of psychiatric disorders including sleep disorders, cognitive disorders, panic attacks, depression, flashbacks, psychosis and severe paranoia. Findings suggest that these psychiatric manifestations might be consequences of MDMA induced brain serotonin neurotoxic lesions. All these data are examined from a critical review of the literature.

Clinique de la Charite, Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire, Lille
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