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Weinmann W, Renz M, Vogt S, Pollak S. 
“Automated solid-phase extraction and two-step derivatisation for simultaneous analysis of basic illicit drugs in serum by GC/MS [In Process Citation]”. 
Int J Legal Med. 2000;113(4):229-35.
A combination of automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) and subsequent two-step derivatisation has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of basic drugs of abuse and cocaine metabolites in serum samples. Substances included in this procedure are morphine, codeine, methadone, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, methylecgonine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDEA and MDA. SPE with mixed-mode cartridges (RP-C8 and cation-exchange) was fully automated with a Zymark RapidTrace SPE robot. GC/MS analysis was performed after derivatisation with a new two-step reaction by trifluoroacetic anhydride and 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropanol. High recoveries (> 85%) with high reproducibility (CV 1.1-3.8%) were found for all drugs. High correlation coefficients (r > 0.998) were obtained due to the addition of deuterated standards prior to extraction. Experience obtained over 2 years of applying this method to drug analysis in serum is discussed.
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