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Thurman EM, Pedersen MJ, Stout RL, Martin T. 
“Distinguishing sympathomimetic amines from amphetamine and methamphetamine in urine by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry”. 
J Anal Toxicol. 1992;16(1):19-27.
Derivatives of seven commonly used sympathomimetic amines and two 'designer amines' were isolated from urine, separated chromatographically from amphetamine and methamphetamine, and determined by mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. The drugs included ephedrine, propylhexedrine, pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, hydroxynorephedrine, phenylephrine, phentermine, methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), and methylenedioxy methamphetamine (MDMA). The drugs were liquid extracted from urine and derivatized by either heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA) or 4-carbethoxyhexafluorobutyryl chloride (4-CB). Because the base peak ions for ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, propylhexedrine, MDMA, and phentermine are identical to methamphetamine (e.g. 254 amu for HFBA) and those for phenylephrine, hydroxynorephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, and MDA are identical to amphetamine (e.g. 240 amu for HFBA), a table of selected ions was developed for all 11 drugs that distinguished amphetamine and methamphetamine from the sympathomimetic amines with either HFBA or 4-CB. The distinguishing ions rely on the ring structure of the different drugs and fragmentation associated with that structure. The 4-CB reagent partially derivatized the hydroxy-containing sympathomimetic amines, while the HFBA completely derivatized all the sympathomimetic amines. Furthermore, false positive results for the 4-CB reagent were found only for methamphetamine (20-2250 ng/mL of methamphetamine) when high concentrations (greater than 5 micrograms) of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine were present in the specimen. These results are related to a combination of injection port temperature and cleanliness of the injection port sleeve.
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