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[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 3, Parts 170 to 199]
[Revised as of April 1, 2000]
From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access
[CITE: 21CFR172.510]

[Page 49-52]
 
                        TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
 
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN 
                          SERVICES (CONTINUED)
 
PART 172--FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION--Table of Contents
 
           Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
 
Sec. 172.510  Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.


    Natural flavoring substances and natural adjuvants may be safely 
used in food in accordance with the following conditions.
    (a) They are used in the minimum quantity required to produce their 
intended physical or technical effect and in accordance with all the 
principles of good manufacturing practice.
    (b) In the appropriate forms (plant parts, fluid and solid extracts, 
concretes, absolutes, oils, gums, balsams, resins, oleoresins, waxes, 
and distillates) they consist of one or more of the following, used 
alone or in combination with flavoring substances and adjuvants 
generally recognized as safe in food, previously sanctioned for such 
use, or regulated in any section of this part.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                   Common name                            Scientific name                  Limitations
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Aloe.............................................  Aloe perryi Baker, A.
                                                    barbadensis Mill., A. ferox
                                                    Mill., and hybrids of this
                                                    sp. with A. africana Mill.
                                                    and A. spicata Baker.
Althea root and flowers..........................  Althea officinalis L........
Amyris (West Indian sandalwood)..................  Amyris balsamifera L........
Angola weed......................................  Roccella fuciformis Ach.....  In alcoholic beverages only
Arnica flowers...................................  Arnica montana L., A.             Do.
                                                    fulgens Pursh, A. sororia
                                                    Greene, or A. cordifolia
                                                    Hooker.
Artemisia (wormwood).............................  Artemisia spp...............  Finished food thujone free\1\
Artichoke leaves.................................  Cynara scolymus L...........  In alcoholic beverages only
Benzoin resin....................................  Styrax benzoin Dryander, S.
                                                    paralleloneurus Perkins, S.
                                                    tonkinensis (Pierre) Craib
                                                    ex Hartwich, or other spp.
                                                    of the Section Anthostyrax
                                                    of the genus Styrax.
Blackberry bark..................................  Rubus, Section Eubatus......
Boldus (boldo) leaves............................  Peumus boldus Mol...........      Do.
Boronia flowers..................................  Boronia megastigma Nees.....
Bryonia root.....................................  Bryonia alba L., or B.            Do.
                                                    diocia Jacq.
Buchu leaves.....................................  Barosma betulina Bartl. et
                                                    Wendl., B. crenulata (L.)
                                                    Hook. or B. serratifolia
                                                    Willd.
Buckbean leaves..................................  Menyanthes trifoliata L.....      Do.
Cajeput..........................................  Melaleuca leucadendron L.
                                                    and other Melaleuca spp.
Calumba root.....................................  Jateorhiza palmata (Lam.)         Do.
                                                    Miers.
Camphor tree.....................................  Cinnamomum camphora (L.)      Safrole free
                                                    Nees et Eberm.
Cascara sagrada..................................  Rhamnus purshiana DC........
Cassie flowers...................................  Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd
Castor oil.......................................  Ricinus communis L..........
Catechu, black...................................  Acacia catechu Willd........
Cedar, white (aborvitae), leaves and twigs.......  Thuja occidentalis L........  Finished food thujone free\1\

[[Page 50]]


Centuary.........................................  Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.  In alcoholic beverages only
Cherry pits......................................  Prunus avium L. or P.         Not to exceed 25 p.p.m. prussic
                                                    cerasus L.                    acid
Cherry-laurel leaves.............................  Prunus laurocerasus L.......      Do.
Chestnut leaves..................................  Castanea dentata (Marsh.)
                                                    Borkh.
Chirata..........................................  Swertia chirata Buch.-Ham...  In alcoholic beverages only
Cinchona, red, bark..............................  Cinchona succirubra Pav. or   In beverages only; not more
                                                    its hybrids.                  than 83 p.p.m. total cinchona
                                                                                  alkaloids in finished beverage
Cinchona, yellow, bark...........................  Cinchona ledgeriana Moens,        Do.
                                                    C. calisaya Wedd., or
                                                    hybrids of these with other
                                                    spp. of Cinchona..
Copaiba..........................................  South American spp. of
                                                    Copaifera L.
Cork, oak........................................  Quercus suber L., or Q.       In alcoholic beverages only
                                                    occidentalis F. Gay.
Costmary.........................................  Chrysanthemum balsamita L...      Do.
Costus root......................................  Saussurea lappa Clarke......
Cubeb............................................  Piper cubeba L. f...........
Currant, black, buds and leaves..................  Ribes nigrum L..............
Damiana leaves...................................  Turnera diffusa Willd.......
Davana...........................................  Artemisia pallens Wall......
Dill, Indian.....................................  Anethum sowa Roxb.
                                                    (Peucedanum graveolens
                                                    Benth et Hook., Anethum
                                                    graveolens L.).
Dittany (fraxinella) roots.......................  Dictamnus albus L...........      Do.
Dittany of Crete.................................  Origanum dictamnus L........
Dragon's blood (dracorubin)......................  Daemonorops spp.............
Elder tree leaves................................  Sambucus nigra L............  In alcoholic beverages only;
                                                                                  not to exceed 25 p.p.m.
                                                                                  prussic acid in the flavor
Elecampane rhizome and roots.....................  Inula helenium L............  In alcoholic beverages only
Elemi............................................  Canarium commune L. or C.
                                                    luzonicum Miq.
Erigeron.........................................  Erigeron canadensis L.......
Eucalyptus globulus leaves.......................  Eucalyptus globulus Labill..
Fir ("pine'') needles and twigs.................  Abies sibirica Ledeb., A.
                                                    alba Mill., A. sachalinesis
                                                    Masters or A. mayriana
                                                    Miyabe et Kudo.
Fir, balsam, needles and twigs...................  Abies balsamea (L.) Mill....
Galanga, greater.................................  Alpinia galanga Willd.......      Do.
Galbanum.........................................  Ferula galbaniflua Boiss. et
                                                    Buhse and other Ferula spp.
Gambir (catechu, pale)...........................  Uncaria gambir Roxb.........
Genet flowers....................................  Spartium junceum L..........
Gentian rhizome and roots........................  Gentiana lutea L............
Gentian, stemless................................  Gentiana acaulis L..........      Do.
Germander, chamaedrys............................  Teucrium chamaedrys L.......      Do.
Germander, golden................................  Teucrium polium L...........      Do.
Guaiac...........................................  Guaiacum officinale L., G.
                                                    santum L., Bulnesia
                                                    sarmienti Lor.
Guarana..........................................  Paullinia cupana HBK........
Haw, black, bark.................................  Viburnum prunifolium L......
Hemlock needles and twigs........................  Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.
                                                    or T. heterophylla (Raf.)
                                                    Sarg.
Hyacinth flowers.................................  Hyacinthus orientalis L.....
Iceland moss.....................................  Cetraria islandica Ach......      Do.
Imperatoria......................................  Peucedanum ostruthium (L.).
                                                    Koch (Imperatoria
                                                    ostruthium L.).
Iva..............................................  Achillea moschata Jacq......      Do.
Labdanum.........................................  Cistus spp..................
Lemon-verbena....................................  Lippia citriodora HBK.......      Do.
Linaloe wood.....................................  Bursera delpechiana Poiss.
                                                    and other Bursera spp.
Linden leaves....................................  Tillia spp..................      Do.
Lovage...........................................  Levisticum officinale Koch..
Lungmoss (lungwort)..............................  Sticta pulmonacea Ach.......
Maidenhair fern..................................  Adiantum capillus-veneris L.      Do.
Maple, mountain..................................  Acer spicatum Lam...........
Mimosa (black wattle) flowers....................  Acacia decurrens Willd. var.
                                                    dealbata.
Mullein flowers..................................  Verbascum phlomoides L. or        Do.
                                                    V. thapsiforme Schrad.
Myrrh............................................  Commiphora molmol Engl., C.
                                                    abyssinica (Berg) Engl., or
                                                    other Commiphora spp.
Myrtle leaves....................................  Myrtus communis L...........      Do.
Oak, English, wood...............................  Quercus robur L.............      Do.

[[Page 51]]


Oak, white, chips................................  Quercus alba L..............
Oak moss.........................................  Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach.,  Finished food thujone
                                                    E. furfuracea (L.) Mann,
                                                    and other lichens.
Olibanum.........................................  Boswellia carteri Birdw. and
                                                    other Boswellia spp.
Opopanax (bisabolmyrrh)..........................  Opopanax chironium Koch
                                                    (true opopanax) of
                                                    Commiphora erythraea Engl.
                                                    var. Llabrescens.
Orris root.......................................  Iris germanica L. (including
                                                    its variety florentina
                                                    Dykes) and I. pallida Lam.
Pansy............................................  Viola tricolor L............  In alcoholic beverages only
Passion flower...................................  Passiflora incarnata L......
Patchouly........................................  Pogostemon cablin Benth. and
                                                    P. heyneanus Benth.
Peach leaves.....................................  Prunus persica (L.) Batsch..  In alcoholic beverages only;
                                                                                  not to exceed 25 p.p.m.
                                                                                  prussic acid in the flavor
Pennyroyal, American.............................  Hedeoma pulegioides (L.)
                                                    Pers.
Pennyroyal, European.............................  Mentha pulegium L...........
Pine, dwarf, needles and twigs...................  Pinus mugo Turra var.
                                                    pumilio (Haenke) Zenari.
Pine, Scotch, needles and twigs..................  Pinus sylvestris L..........
Pine, white, bark................................  Pinus strobus L.............  In alcoholic beverages only
Pine, white oil..................................  Pinus palustris Mill., and
                                                    other Pinus spp.
Poplar buds......................................  Populus balsamifera L. (P.        Do.
                                                    tacamahacca Mill.), P.
                                                    candicans Ait., or P. nigra
                                                    L.
Quassia..........................................  Picrasma excelsa (Sw.)
                                                    Planch, or Quassia amara L.
Quebracho bark...................................  Aspidosperma quebracho-       Schinopsis lorentzii (Griseb.)
                                                    blanco Schlecht, or           Engl.
                                                    (Quebrachia lorentzii
                                                    (Griseb)).
Quillaia (soapbark)..............................  Quillaja saponaria Mol......
Red saunders (red sandalwood)....................  Pterocarpus san alinus L....  In alcoholic beverages only
Rhatany root.....................................  Krameria triandra Ruiz et
                                                    Pav. or K. argentea Mart.
Rhubarb, garden root.............................  Rheum rhaponticum L.........      Do.
Rhubarb root.....................................  Rheum officinale Baill., R.
                                                    palmatum L., or other spp.
                                                    (excepting R. rhaponticum
                                                    L.) or hybrids of Rheum
                                                    grown in China.
Roselle..........................................  Hibiscus sabdariffa L.......      Do.
Rosin (colophony)................................  Pinus palustris Mill., and        Do.
                                                    other Pinus spp.
St. Johnswort leaves, flowers, and caulis........  Hypericum perforatum L......  Hypericin-free alcohol
                                                                                  distillate form only; in
                                                                                  alcoholic beverages only
Sandalwood, white (yellow, or East Indian).......  Santalum album L............
Sandarac.........................................  Tetraclinis articulata        In alcoholic beverages only
                                                    (Vahl.), Mast.
Sarsaparilla.....................................  Smilax aristolochiaefolia
                                                    Mill., (Mexican
                                                    sarsaparilla), S. regelii
                                                    Killip et Morton (Honduras
                                                    sarsaparilla), S. febrifuga
                                                    Kunth (Ecuadorean
                                                    sarsaparilla), or
                                                    undetermined Smilax spp.
                                                    (Ecuadorean or Central
                                                    American sarsaparilla).
Sassafras leaves.................................  Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)     Safrole free
                                                    Nees.
Senna, Alexandria................................  Cassia acutifolia Delile....
Serpentaria (Virginia snakeroot).................  Aristolochia serpentaria L..  In alcoholic beverages only
Simaruba bark....................................  Simaruba amara Aubl.........      Do.
Snakeroot, Canadian (wild ginger)................  Asarum canadense L..........
Spruce needles and twigs.........................  Picea glauca (Moench) Voss
                                                    or P. mariana (Mill.) BSP.
Storax (styrax)..................................  Liquidambar orientalis Mill.
                                                    or L. styraciflua L.
Tagetes (marigold)...............................  Tagetes patula L., T. erecta  As oil only
                                                    L., or T. minuta L. (T.
                                                    glandulifera Schrank).
Tansy............................................  Tanacetum vulgare L.........  In alcoholic beverages only;
                                                                                  finished alcoholic beverage
                                                                                  thujone free\1\
Thistle, blessed (holy thistle)..................  Onicus benedictus L.........  In alcoholic beverages only
Thymus capitatus (Spanish "origanum'')..........  Thymus capitatus Hoffmg. et
                                                    Link.
Tolu.............................................  Myroxylon balsamum (L.)
                                                    Harms.
Turpentine.......................................  Pinus palustris Mill. and
                                                    other Pinus spp. which
                                                    yield terpene oils
                                                    exclusively.
Valerian rhizome and roots.......................  Valeriana officinalis L.....
Veronica.........................................  Veronica officinalis L......      Do.
Vervain, European................................  Verbena officinalis L.......      Do.
Vetiver..........................................  Vetiveria zizanioides Stapf.      Do.
Violet, Swiss....................................  Viola calcarata L...........

[[Page 52]]


Walnut husks (hulls), leaves, and green nuts.....  Juglans nigra L. or J. regia
                                                    L.
Woodruff, sweet..................................  Asperula odorata L..........  In alcoholic beverages only
Yarrow...........................................  Achillea millefolium L......  In beverages only; finished
                                                                                  beverage thujone free\1\
Yerba santa......................................  Eriodictyon californicum
                                                    (Hook, et Arn.) Torr.
Yucca, Joshua-tree...............................  Yucca brevifolia Engelm.....
Yucca, Mohave....................................  Yucca schidigera Roezl ex
                                                    Ortgies (Y. mohavensis
                                                    Sarg.).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ As determined by using the method (or, in other than alcoholic beverages, a suitable adaptation thereof) in
  section 9.129 of the "Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,'' 13th
  Ed. (1980), which is incorporated by reference. Copies may be obtained from the Association of Official
  Analytical Chemists International, 481 North Frederic Ave., suite 500, Gaithersburg, MD 20877-2504, or may be
  examined at the Office of the Federal Register, 800 North Capitol Street, NW., suite 700, Washington, DC 20408

[42 FR 14491, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 43 FR 14644, Apr. 7, 1978; 49 
FR 10104, Mar. 19, 1984; 54 FR 24897, June 12, 1989]