|[3D .mol structure]|
A well-stirred solution of 42 mL diisopropylamine in 100 mL petroleum ether was placed in a He atmosphere and cooled to 0 °C with an external ice-water bath. There was then added 120 mL of a 2.5 M solution of n-butyllithium in hexane, producing a clear but viscous solution of the lithium amide. Maintaining this temperature, there was added 100 mL of anhydrous THF, followed by 10 mL dry CH3CN, which produced an immediate white precipitate. A solution of 23 g of 3-bromo-2,6-dimethoxytoluene in 75 mL anhydrous THF was then added which produced a light red color. The reaction mixture was allowed to come to room temperature. The color became progressively darkened, eventually becoming a deep red-brown. After 0.5 h, the reaction mixture was poured into 500 mL of dilute H2SO4, the layers were separated, and the aqueous layer extracted with 2x75 mL CH2Cl2. The organics were combined, the solvent removed under vacuum, and the residue distilled. Discarding a first fraction, the cut boiling at 125-165 °C at 0.3 mm/Hg was collected. This light yellow fraction spontaneously crystallized and weighed 11.0 g. Trituration under 20 mL petroleum ether provided 1.72 g of 3,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenylacetonitrile as a yellowish solid.
A solution of LAH in anhydrous THF under nitrogen (20 mL of a 1.0 M solution) was cooled to 0 °C and vigorously stirred. There was added, dropwise, 0.54 mL 100% H2SO4, followed by 1.5 g 3,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenylacetonitrile as a solid. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0 °C for a few min, then brought to room temperature for 1 h, and finally to a reflux on the steam bath for 30 min. After cooling back to 0 °C there was added IPA until no more hydrogen was evolved, followed by sufficient 15% NaOH to produce a granular texture. The white solids were removed by filtration, and washed with THF. The filtrate and washes were stripped of solvent under vacuum, the residue added to 150 mL dilute H2SO4 and washed with 2x50 mL CH2Cl2. The aqueous phase was made basic with 25% NaOH, and extracted with 3x100 mL CH2Cl2. These extracts were pooled, the solvent removed under vacuum, and the residue distilled at 110-120 °C at 0.45 mm/Hg to give a colorless viscous oil. This was dissolved in 10 mL of IPA, neutralized with 10 drops of concentrated HCl and diluted with 20 mL anhydrous Et2O. The product was removed by filtration, washed with Et2O, and air dried to give 0.55 g 3,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenethylamine (DESOXY) as white crystals.
DOSAGE: 40 - 120 mg.
DURATION: 6 - 8 h.
QUALITATIVE COMMENTS: (with 40 mg) Initially I felt very chilled, so I lay down under a blanket. Eyes-closed imagery became very dream-like and my general state was felt as having lost my center. Also, not much in touch with feelings, sense of strangeness, almost alien view of the world. Not through recog-nizable eyes. Neither pleasant nor unpleasant, just strange. Was able to drift into sleep very easily, or sleep-like trance state, with disconnected, far-out imagery. After 3 hours the nausea was gone, I was able to get up and explore. A little food went down well. No drive, no strong focus in any direction. Feel this was a quite fascinating experience. Completely down by six hours. Would go a bit slowly because of slight hints of neurological sensitivity--the instant chilling and a tendency to dart on going to sleep. The nervous system does not feel over-exposed, but all of a sudden there will be a millisecond of auditory hallucination, or an out-of-the-blue startle. So take it easy going up. [Some 24 hours after this experiment had been completed, and a normal baseline re-established, a complex and psycho-logically disruptive syndrome occurred, that lasted for the better part of a week. The temporal juxtaposition between the use of desoxy and the subsequent "spiritual crisis" initially suggested some possible connection, but in retrospect the events seem to be unrelated].
(with 40 mg) I have offered to be a control on an experiment where there had been a close relationship between a trial with desoxy and what might have been a psychotic break, or some kind of so-called spiritual emergency. These two events lay within a day of one another. I was aware of my 40 milligram dosage at about three-quarters of an hour into the experiment, and felt that there was no more in-tensification at the two-hour point. At that time I felt distinctly spaced but with a very good feeling, and I could see no reason not to increase the dosage at some future time. There was a good and mellow mood, and enjoyment in escapist reading. The only physical oddity that I noted was that there had been no urge to urinate, and only a small amount of quite concentrated urine was passed rather late in the experiment. I was at baseline at the fifth hour, and there was nothing unusual at any time during the following week.
(with 100 mg) The stuff has a sweet taste! There was a slight heart-push in the early awareness period, with a pulse up to 100 and a feeling of pressure in the chest. There were no apparent visual enhancements, but the eyes-closed imagery to music was noteworthy. Thinking skills and conversation seemed to be fully under control, if not enhanced. There was none of the colorful psychedelic world of mescaline, but this might be just around the corner; perhaps with a larger dose. This is a comfortable in-between level. Sleep was not possible at the sixth hour, but two hours later, it was easy and very restful. There was no negative price to pay the next day.
EXTENSIONS AND COMMENTARY: All substituents that are involved with the several drugs being discussed in this writing are really things that are stuck like warts on the benzene ring that is central to every phenethylamine. Some of these warts are things attached with a oxygen atom; there are some of these in every single compound in this story. No oxygen atom, no psychedelic effect. Without them, one has stimulants or, more frequently, no effects at all.
But the removal of an oxygen atom (in those cases where there is more than one) can radically change the nature of the effects seen. This is the exact meaning of the term "desoxy." "Des", without, and "oxy", the oxygen. Since this drug is simply the structure of mescaline with the oxygen at the 4-position plucked out of the picture, the first impulse was to abbreviate this compound as DOM for des-oxymescaline. However, a long, long time ago, in a universe far, far away, a compound was synthesized that had a methoxy group replaced by a methyl, and it was already named DOM. This was the first of the STP analogs, and the initials stood for desoxy (DO, losing an oxygen) and methyl (M, having it replaced with a methyl group). These are two different worlds. One M stands for Mescaline, and the other M stands for Methyl. Let's call it 4-desoxymescaline, or simply DESOXY, and be exact.
This drug is a prime example of a pharmacological challenge directed to the metabolic attack at the 4-position as a mechanism for the expression of biological activity. A methoxy group there would allow easy removal of the methyl group from the oxygen by some demethylation process, but a bare methyl group there cannot be removed by any simple process. It must be removed by a very difficult oxidation.
This is not the first time that oxygen atoms have been removed from the mescaline molecule. Both the 3,5-dideoxymescaline (3,5-dimethyl-4-methoxyphenethylamine) and 3,4,5-trideoxymescaline (also called desoxymescaline in the literature, but really tri-desoxymescaline or 3,4,5-trimethylphenethylamine) have been studied in the cat, and have shown extraordinary pharmacological profiles of CNS action. The trimethyl compound showed behavior that was interpreted as being intense mental turmoil, accompanied by a startling rise in body temperature. The significance is hard to determine, in that LSD gave similar responses in the cat, but mescaline was without effects at all. No human studies have been made on these compounds, just animal studies. But they might prove upon trial in man to be most revealing. They would have to be performed with exceptional care.
The 3-carbon chain amphetamines that correspond to these mescaline look-alikes with one or more methoxy groups replaced with methyl groups, are largely untested and would require independent and novel syntheses. The 3,4,5-trimethylamphetamine is known, and is known to be very hard on experimental cats.
A mescaline analogue with a bromo atom in place of the 4-methoxyl group is an analogue of mescaline in exactly the same way that DOB (a very potent am-phetamine) is an analog of TMA-2 (the original trisubstituted amphetamine). This analogue, 3,5-dimethoxy-4-bromoamphetamine, has been found to be a most effective serotonin agonist, and it is a possibility that it could be a most potent phenethylamine. But, as of the present time, it has never been assayed in man.
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